Bijoy Chhetri, PhD, former Researcher of G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment, Sikkim Regional Centre (737102, India, Gangtok, Pangthang); Assistant Professor of School of Basic Sciences of Shri Ramasamy Memorial University (737101, India, Sikkim, Gangtok, Tadong, 5th Mile); iD ORCID:; e-mail:
Hemant Kumar Badola, PhD, former Advisor to the Chief Minister of Sikkim on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Green Think Tank Facilitator (737101, India, Gangtok, Govt. of Sikkim, C.M. Office, Samman Bhawan); former Scientist G & Head, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment, Sikkim Regional Centre (737102, India, Sikkim, Gangtok, Pangthang); presently: a Freelance Expert Advisor of Biodiversity and Climate Change (248001, India, Dehradun, GMS Road, Sailok Phase 2, Aditya Doonshire Apartments); iD ORCID:; e-mail:
Sudip K. Barat, PhD, former Professor of Zoology of University of North Bengal (734013, India, West Bengal, Darjeeling); iD ORCID:; e-mail:

Reference to article

Chhetri B., Badola H.K., Barat S. 2021. How people perceive resilience of Himalayan pheasants, Phasianidae, in relation to climate warming in Eastern Himalaya. Nature Conservation Research 6(3): 87–96.

Electronic Supplement. The selected Himalayan pheasant species and their potential habitats in the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, with short commentaries (Link).

Section Research articles

Conceptual frameworks of climate change impact on the Himalayan biodiversity have given high emphasis to understand the linkages between indigenous people and their environment. Existing literature lacks climate change ramification on Himalayan biodiversity due to a deficit of long-term data. Therefore, perception tools are used to illuminate climate change impacts on Himalayan biodiversity by the local people's knowledge regarding their environment. We used a snowball technique to understand the indigenous knowledge, responses, and their perception of Himalayan pheasants (Ithaginis cruentus, Lophophorus impejanus, Lophura leucomelanos, and Tragopan satyra) with climate change in Eastern Himalaya. We carried out a case study by taking people's perception in and around the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve. The results indicated that climate warming is more pronounced in the local premise of Himalaya, which has significantly affected the Himalayan pheasants. The questionnaire reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha. The value was quite high despite the small number (three variables) of items. Having established the scale reliability and validity of the data, linear regression analysis found appropriate to judge the range shift of pheasants. The regression demonstrated the goodness of fit was quite acceptable considering the F value; climate warming significantly influenced the overall pheasant range shift as revealed by the data obtained from the respondents (p < 0.001). This study will be an insight into the climate change impacts on Himalayan biodiversity and will give more focus to the threatened and narrow ranged endemic species of the Himalayas before they go to the verge of extinction.


climate change, conservation, Galliformes, endemic species, indigenous knowledge, restricted range

Artice information

Received: 04.12.2020. Revised: 18.06.2021. Accepted: 21.06.2021.

The full text of the article

Acharya B.K., Vijayan L. 2010. Status and distribution of endemic and threatened birds of the eastern Himalaya in Sikkim, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 685–689. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o2257.685-9
Badola H.K. 2017. Biocultural knowledge for biodiversity conservation: some Himalayan endorsements. Biodiversity 18(4): 212–218. DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2017.1410444
Badola H.K., Subba J.B. 2012. Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (Sikkim). In: L.M.S. Palni, R.S. Rawal, R.K. Rai, S.V. Reddy (Eds.): Compendium on Indian Biosphere Reserves: Progression During Two Decades of Conservation. Kosi-Almora: Kosi-Almora and Ministry of Environment and Forests. P. 133–142.
Barnard P., Thuiller W. 2008. Introduction. Global change and biodiversity: future challenges. Biology Letters 4(5): 553–555. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0374
Bennett N.J. 2016. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology 30(3): 582–592. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12681
Berkes F., Colding J., Folke C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1251–1262. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2
Bhattacharya D., Pradhan S. 2018. Perception of tour operators on the sustainability of home stay projects: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Basic and Applied Research 8(6): 1207–1217.
Byg A., Salick J. 2009. Local perspectives on a global phenomenon – climate change in Eastern Tibetan villages. Global Environmental Change 19(2): 156–166. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.010
Chamberlain D.E., Pedrini P., Brambilla M., Rolando A., Girardello M. 2016. Identifying key conservation threats to alpine birds through expert knowledge. PeerJ 4: e1723. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1723
Chaudhary P., Rai S., Wangdi S., Mao A., Rehman N., Chettri S., Bawa K.S. 2011. Consistency of local perceptions of climate change in the Kangchenjunga Himalaya landscape. Current Science 101(4): 504–513.
Chhetri B., Badola H.K., Barat S. 2017. Ecological study of Satyr Tragopan (Tragopan satyra) in Sikkim-India: a threatened bird species of Eastern Himalaya. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 8(9): 20362–20368. DOI: 10.24327/ijrsr.2017.0809.0880
Chhetri B., Badola H.K., Barat S. 2018. Predicting climate-driven habitat shifting of the near threatened Satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra; Galliformes) in the Himalayas. Avian Biology Research 11(4): 221–230. DOI: 10.3184/175815618X15316676114070
Chhetri B., Badola H.K., Barat S. 2021. Modelling climate change impacts on distribution of Himalayan pheasants. Ecological Indicators 123: 107368. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107368
Clergeau P., Mennechez G., Sauvage A., Lemoine A. 2001. Human perception and appreciation of birds: A motivation for wildlife conservation in urban environments of France. In: In: J.M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, R. Donnelly (Eds.): Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Boston, USA: Springer. P. 69–88. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-1531-9_4
Crane D.R., Busby D.M., Larson J.H. 1991. A factor analysis of the dyadic adjustment scale with distressed and nondistressed couples. American Journal of Family Therapy 19(1): 60–66. DOI: 10.1080/01926189108250835
Dash S.K., Jenamani R.K., Kalsi S.R., Panda S.K. 2007. Some evidence of climate change in twentieth-century India. Climatic Change 85(3): 299–321. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-007-9305-9
Du M.Y, Kawashima S., Yonemura S., Zhang X.Z., Chen S.B. 2004. Mutual influence between human activities and climate change in the Tibetan plateau during recent years. Global and Planetary Change 41(3–4): 241–249. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2004.01.010
Fisher M., Chaudhury M., McCusker B. 2010. Do forests help rural households adapt to climate variability? Evidence from Southern Malawi. World Development 38(9): 1241–1250. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.03.005
Gaire N.P., Koirala M., Bhuju D.R., Borgaonkar H.P. 2014. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya. Climate of the Past 10(4): 1277–1290. DOI: 10.5194/cp-10-1277-2014
Gentili R., Badola H.K., Birks H.J. 2015. Alpine biodiversity and refugia in a changing climate. Biodiversity 16(4): 193–195. DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2015.1117023
Gliem J.A., Gliem R.R. 2003. Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales. In: Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education. Columbus, USA: Ohio State University. P. 82–88.
Gottfried M., Pauli H., Futschik A., Akhalkatsi M., Barančok P., Alonso J.L.B., Coldea G., Dick J., Erschbamer B., Fernández Calzado M.R., Kazakis G., Krajči J., Larsson P., Mallaun M., Michelsen O., Moiseev D., Moiseev P., Molau U., Merzouki A., Nagy L., Nakhutsrishvili G., Pedersen B., Pelino G., Puscas M., Rossi G., Stanisci A., Theurillat J.P., Tomaselli M., Villar L., Vittoz P., Vogiatzakis I., Grabherr G. 2012. Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2(2): 111–115. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1329
Gupta A., Guha K. 2002. Tradition and conservation in northeastern India: an ethical analysis. Eubios 12(1): 15–18.
Ives J. 2004. Himalayan perceptions: Environmental change and the well-being of mountain peoples. Vol. 6. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. 265 p.
Jia F., Wang N., Zheng G. 2005. Winter habitat requirements of White Eared-pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon and Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus in south-west China. Bird Conservation International 15(3): 303–312. DOI: 10.1017/S095927090500047X
Jyrwa J.D., Joshi B.D., Ghosh A., Mayi Y., Nipa M., Anga N., Pali M., Thakur M., Chandra K., Sharma L.K. 2020. Dimensions of changing perception towards wildlife conservation in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas. Global Ecology and Conservation 24: e01265. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01265
Kukreti M. 2015. Ecology of wide spread white crested kaleej pheasant Lophura leucomelanos hamiltoni (gray) in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Global Biosciences 4(1): 1245–1249.
Maggini R., Lehmann A., Kéry M., Schmid H., Beniston M., Jenni L., Zbinden N. 2011. Are Swiss birds tracking climate change?: Detecting elevational shifts using response curve shapes. Ecological Modelling 222(1): 21–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.09.010
Marin A., Berkes F. 2013. Local people's accounts of climate change: to what extent are they influenced by the media? Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 4(1): 1–8. DOI: 10.1002/wcc.199
Negi V.S., Maikhuri R.K., Pharswan D., Thakur S., Dhyani P.P. 2017. Climate change impact in the Western Himalaya: people's perception and adaptive strategies. Journal of Mountain Science 14(2): 403–416. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-015-3814-1
Norusis M.J. 1985. SPSSX advanced statistic guide. New York: McGraw-Hill. 505 p.
Olawale F., Garwe D. 2010. Obstacles to the growth of new SMEs in South Africa: A principal component analysis approach. African Journal of Business Management 4(5): 729–738.
Pachauri R.K., Allen M.R., Barros V.R., Broome J., Cramer W., Christ R., Church J.A., Clarke L., Dahe Q., Dasgupta P., Dubash N.K. 2014. Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 151 p.
Pandey A., Badola H.K., Rai S., Singh S.P. 2018. Timberline structure and woody taxa regeneration towards treeline along latitudinal gradients in Khangchendzonga National Park, Eastern Himalaya. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0207762. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207762
Perez C., Nicklin C., Dangles O., Vanek S., Sherwood S., Halloy S., Garrett K., Forbes G. 2010. Climate change in the high Andes: implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers. International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic, and Social Sustainability: Annual Review 6(5): 71–88. DOI: 10.18848/1832-2077/CGP/v06i05/54835
R Core Team. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available from
Sánchez-Mercado A., Blanco O., Sucre-Smith B., Briceño-Linares J.M., Peláez C., Rodríguez J.P. 2020. Using Peoples' Perceptions to Improve Conservation Programs: The Yellow-Shouldered Amazon in Venezuela. Diversity 12(9): 342. DOI: 10.3390/d12090342
Saroar M.M., Routray J.K. 2012. Impacts of climatic disasters in coastal Bangladesh: why does private adaptive capacity differ? Regional Environmental Change 12(1): 169–190. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-011-0247-4
Sathyakumar S., Poudyal K., Bhattacharya T., Bashir T. 2010. Galliformes of Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, Sikkim, India. In: M.L. Arrawatia, S. Tambe (Eds.): Biodiversity of Sikkim – Exploring and Conserving a Global Hotspot. Gangtok: Government of Sikkim. P. 301–315.
Singh H., Kumar N., Kumar M., Singh R. 2020. Modelling habitat suitability of western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) a range-restricted vulnerable bird species of the Himalayan region, in response to climate change. Climate Risk Management 29: 100241. DOI: 10.1016/j.crm.2020.100241
Socolar J.B., Epanchin P.N., Beissinger S.R., Tingley M.W. 2017. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(49): 12976–12981. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705897114
Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., Miller H.L. 2007. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis: Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 989 p.
Stocker T.F., Qin D., Plattner G.K., Tignor M., Allen S.K., Boschung J., Nauels A., Xia Y., Bex V., Midgley P.M. 2013. Climate change 2013. The physical science basis: Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1535 p.
Subba B., Sen S., Ravikanth G., Nobis M.P. 2018. Direct modelling of limited migration improves projected distributions of Himalayan amphibians under climate change. Biological Conservation 227: 352–360. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.035
Vignola R., Koellner T., Scholz R.W., McDaniels T.L. 2010. Decision-making by farmers regarding ecosystem services: factors affecting soil conservation efforts in Costa Rica. Land Use Policy 27(4): 1132–1142. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2010.03.003
Vogt K.A., Beard K.H., Hammann S., O'Hara Palmiotto J., Vogt D.J., Scatena F.N., Hecht B.P. 2002. Indigenous knowledge informing management of tropical forests: the link between rhythms in plant secondary chemistry and lunar cycles. Ambio 31(6): 485–490. DOI: 10.1579/0044-7447-31.6.485
Weiskopf S.R., Rubenstein M.A., Crozier L.G., Gaichas S., Griffis R., Halofsky J.E., Hyde K.J.W., Morelli T.L., Morisette J.T., Muñoz R.C., Pershing A.J., Peterson D.L., Poudel R., Staudinger M.D., Sutton-Grier A.E., Thompson L., Vose J., Weltzin J.F., Whyte K.P. 2020. Climate change effects on biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and natural resource management in the United States. Science of The Total Environment 733: 137782. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137782