Alexander A. Minin, Dr.Sc., Leading Researcher of the Institute of Geography of RAS (29 Staromonetniy lane, Moscow, Russia, 119017); Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of RAS (26 Vavilov Street, Moscow, Russia, 119334); e-mail:
Alexander A. Ananin, Dr.Sc., Head of the Science Unit in the United Administration of Barguzinsky Biosphere Reserve and Zabaikalsky National Park (44 Komsomolskaya str., ap. 64, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, Russia, 670045); Senior Researcher of the Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS (6, Sakhyanovoy str., Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, Russia, 670047); e-mail:
Yuri A. Buyvolov, PhD, Deputy Director for Science of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Danky, Serpukhovskiy rayon, Moscow region, Russia); e-mail:
Evgeniy G. Larin, Senior Researcher of the Natural Park «Kondinsky Lakes» (5 Komsomolsky lane, Sovetsky, Tyumen region, Russia); e-mail:
Pavel A. Lebedev, PhD, Head of the Phenological centre of the Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS (197376, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Professor Popov str., 2, litera N); Associate Professor of the Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University (Institutsky per., 5, Saint-Petersburg, 194021, Russia); e-mail:
Natalia V. Polikarpova, PhD. Deputy Director for Science of the Pasvik State Nature Reserve (184421 Russia, Murmansk region, Pechenga district, Rajakoski settlement); e-mail:
Irina V. Prokosheva, Senior Researcher of the Vishersky State Nature Reserve (36B, Gagarina str., Krasnovishersk, Perm` region, Russia, 618590); e-mail:
Marina I. Rudenko, Head of the Scientific Unit of the Crimean National Park (42 Partizanskaya st., Alushta, Republic of Crimea, 298514); Senior Researcher of the Nikita Botanical Garden – National Scientific Center (298648, Nikita, Yalta, Republic of Crimea); e-mail:
Inna I. Sapelnikova, Senior Researcher of the Voronezh State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tsentralnaya usad'ba Street, Goszapovednik settlement, Voronezh region, Russia, 394080); e-mail:
Violetta G. Fedotova, Leading Specialist of the Phenological centre of the Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS (197376, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Professor Popov str., 2, litera N); e-mail:
Elena A. Shuyskaya, PhD, Leading Researcher of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Zapovedny settlement, Nelidovo district, Tver region, Russia, 172521); e-mail:
Marina V. Yakovleva, Senior Researcher of the Kivach State Nature Reserve (186220, Zapovednaya street, 14, Kivach village, Kondopozhsky district, Republic of Karelia, Russia); e-mail:
Oksana V. Yantser, PhD, Dean of the Faculty of natural sciences, physical culture and tourism of the Ural State Pedagogical University, Associate Professor of the Department of Metodics of Geographical Tourism and Education (26, prosp. Astronauts, Ekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk region, Russia, 620017); e-mail:

Reference to article

Minin A.A., Ananin A.A., Buyvolov Yu.A., Larin E.G., Lebedev P.A., Polikarpova N.V., Prokosheva I.V., Rudenko M.I., Sapelnikova I.I., Fedotova V.G., Shuyskaya E.A., Yakovleva M.V., Yantser O.V. 2020. Recommendations to unify phenological observations in Russia. Nature Conservation Research 5(4): 89–110.

Electronic supplement 1. Dictionary of terms and definitions used in this article (Link).
Electronic supplement 2. List of Russian names of plants, fungi and animals mentioned in the article (Link).

Section Discussions

In Russia, the methodics of phenological observation processing have been developing during many years. This aimed to unify the names of phenological phases and phenomena, uniform the signs of the onset of a particular phenological event. However, it was not possible to achieve this aim and develop a widely accepted system of the names and signs until now. For example, some synonyms are still used to name the same phenomenon. A lack of an adequate comparison with the phenological observation programmes of other countries, differences in methodological approaches to organise the phenological observations make it difficult to compare Russian data with foreign ones. However, unlike many other countries, Russia has accumulated a huge long-term experience of conducting phenological observations collecting both in the system of research organisations and by voluntary observers (volunteers). This paper was aimed to develop proposals to standardise the phenological programmes and unify the methodological aspects of the phenological observation organisation in Russia. By now, all the necessary conditions have been created for this purpose. In Russia, phenological observations are being conducted under the programme «Chronicle of Nature» in more than 100 Protected Areas. In some of them, these observations have been collected up to 100 years. Since the XIX century, phenological data are being accumulated thanks to the voluntary network of the Russian Geographical Society. Observational data from Protected Areas are stored in the form of manuscripts both in the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia and in each particular Protected Area. The data collected by the voluntary observers are stored in the Phenological Centre of the Botanical Institute of RAS. The data are also being published partially in the regional offices of the Russian Geographical Society in the form of nature calendars. To optimise the composition and number of observations, we have proposed the main (basic) and additional phases and phenomena, whose names are given in accordance with the European System Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical Industry (Russian-language synonyms of the names are also provided), as well as unambiguously interpreted signs of the onset of phenomena, and species recommended for use in phenological observations. According to the programme of hydrometeorological observations, we have proposed 51 phenomena (including 36 basic ones) and methods to identify the dates of these phenomena. For plants, we have proposed to record six development phases and 32 phenomena (including 11 basic ones), as well as three phenomena for fungi, 15 basic phenomena for birds, and seven phenomena for invertebrates. The proposed basic programmes and methodological approaches can serve as the basis for recommendations to conduct the phenological observations. They are intended to be used by the staff of Protected Areas (primarily, nature reserves and national parks), Russian Geographical Society, Phenological Centre of the Botanical Institute of RAS, and other interested organisations, services, and nature lovers.


Chronicle of Nature, hydrometeorological phenomenon, phenological phase, phenological phenomenon, sign of the phenomenon occurrence

Artice information

Received: 04.03.2020. Revised: 06.08.2020. Accepted: 14.08.2020.

The full text of the article

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