Article

Article name RECOMMENDATIONS TO UNIFY PHENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN RUSSIA
Authors

Alexander A. Minin, Dr.Sc., Leading Researcher of the Institute of Geography of RAS (29 Staromonetniy lane, Moscow, Russia, 119017); Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of RAS (26 Vavilov Street, Moscow, Russia, 119334); e-mail: aminin1959@mail.ru
Alexander A. Ananin, Dr.Sc., Head of the Science Unit in the United Administration of Barguzinsky Biosphere Reserve and Zabaikalsky National Park (44 Komsomolskaya str., ap. 64, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, Russia, 670045); Senior Researcher of the Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS (6, Sakhyanovoy str., Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, Russia, 670047); e-mail: a_ananin@mail.ru
Yuri A. Buyvolov, PhD, Deputy Director for Science of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Danky, Serpukhovskiy rayon, Moscow region, Russia); e-mail: ybuyvolov@gmail.com
Evgeniy G. Larin, Senior Researcher of the Natural Park «Kondinsky Lakes» (5 Komsomolsky lane, Sovetsky, Tyumen region, Russia); e-mail: larvisim@mail.ru
Pavel A. Lebedev, PhD, Head of the Phenological centre of the Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS (197376, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Professor Popov str., 2, litera N); Associate Professor of the Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University (Institutsky per., 5, Saint-Petersburg, 194021, Russia); e-mail: p_lebedev@mail.ru
Natalia V. Polikarpova, PhD. Deputy Director for Science of the Pasvik State Nature Reserve (184421 Russia, Murmansk region, Pechenga district, Rajakoski settlement); e-mail: polikarpova-pasvik@yandex.ru
Irina V. Prokosheva, Senior Researcher of the Vishersky State Nature Reserve (36B, Gagarina str., Krasnovishersk, Perm` region, Russia, 618590); e-mail: halsori@yandex.ru
Marina I. Rudenko, Head of the Scientific Unit of the Crimean National Park (42 Partizanskaya st., Alushta, Republic of Crimea, 298514); Senior Researcher of the Nikita Botanical Garden – National Scientific Center (298648, Nikita, Yalta, Republic of Crimea); e-mail: mir_alushta@mail.ru
Inna I. Sapelnikova, Senior Researcher of the Voronezh State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tsentralnaya usad'ba Street, Goszapovednik settlement, Voronezh region, Russia, 394080); e-mail: is@reserve.vrn.ru
Violetta G. Fedotova, Leading Specialist of the Phenological centre of the Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS (197376, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Professor Popov str., 2, litera N); e-mail: leosta2@mail.ru
Elena A. Shuyskaya, PhD, Leading Researcher of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Zapovedny settlement, Nelidovo district, Tver region, Russia, 172521); e-mail: elenashuy@rambler.ru
Marina V. Yakovleva, Senior Researcher of the Kivach State Nature Reserve (186220, Zapovednaya street, 14, Kivach village, Kondopozhsky district, Republic of Karelia, Russia); e-mail: kivach-bird@rambler.ru
Oksana V. Yantser, PhD, Dean of the Faculty of natural sciences, physical culture and tourism of the Ural State Pedagogical University, Associate Professor of the Department of Metodics of Geographical Tourism and Education (26, prosp. Astronauts, Ekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk region, Russia, 620017); e-mail: ksenia_yantser@bk.ru

Reference to article

Minin A.A., Ananin A.A., Buyvolov Yu.A., Larin E.G., Lebedev P.A., Polikarpova N.V., Prokosheva I.V., Rudenko M.I., Sapelnikova I.I., Fedotova V.G., Shuyskaya E.A., Yakovleva M.V., Yantser O.V. 2020. Recommendations to unify phenological observations in Russia. Nature Conservation Research 5(4): 89–110. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2020.060

Electronic supplement 1. Dictionary of terms and definitions used in this article (Link).
Electronic supplement 2. List of Russian names of plants, fungi and animals mentioned in the article (Link).

Section Discussions
DOI https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2020.060
Abstract

In Russia, the methodics of phenological observation processing have been developing during many years. This aimed to unify the names of phenological phases and phenomena, uniform the signs of the onset of a particular phenological event. However, it was not possible to achieve this aim and develop a widely accepted system of the names and signs until now. For example, some synonyms are still used to name the same phenomenon. A lack of an adequate comparison with the phenological observation programmes of other countries, differences in methodological approaches to organise the phenological observations make it difficult to compare Russian data with foreign ones. However, unlike many other countries, Russia has accumulated a huge long-term experience of conducting phenological observations collecting both in the system of research organisations and by voluntary observers (volunteers). This paper was aimed to develop proposals to standardise the phenological programmes and unify the methodological aspects of the phenological observation organisation in Russia. By now, all the necessary conditions have been created for this purpose. In Russia, phenological observations are being conducted under the programme «Chronicle of Nature» in more than 100 Protected Areas. In some of them, these observations have been collected up to 100 years. Since the XIX century, phenological data are being accumulated thanks to the voluntary network of the Russian Geographical Society. Observational data from Protected Areas are stored in the form of manuscripts both in the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia and in each particular Protected Area. The data collected by the voluntary observers are stored in the Phenological Centre of the Botanical Institute of RAS. The data are also being published partially in the regional offices of the Russian Geographical Society in the form of nature calendars. To optimise the composition and number of observations, we have proposed the main (basic) and additional phases and phenomena, whose names are given in accordance with the European System Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical Industry (Russian-language synonyms of the names are also provided), as well as unambiguously interpreted signs of the onset of phenomena, and species recommended for use in phenological observations. According to the programme of hydrometeorological observations, we have proposed 51 phenomena (including 36 basic ones) and methods to identify the dates of these phenomena. For plants, we have proposed to record six development phases and 32 phenomena (including 11 basic ones), as well as three phenomena for fungi, 15 basic phenomena for birds, and seven phenomena for invertebrates. The proposed basic programmes and methodological approaches can serve as the basis for recommendations to conduct the phenological observations. They are intended to be used by the staff of Protected Areas (primarily, nature reserves and national parks), Russian Geographical Society, Phenological Centre of the Botanical Institute of RAS, and other interested organisations, services, and nature lovers.

Keywords

Chronicle of Nature, hydrometeorological phenomenon, phenological phase, phenological phenomenon, sign of the phenomenon occurrence

Artice information

Received: 04.03.2020. Revised: 06.08.2020. Accepted: 14.08.2020.

The full text of the article
References

Aksenova N.A. (Ed.). 1993. Methods for studying the seasonal phenomena in nature. Moscow: Moscow Centre of the Russian Geographical Society. 84 p. [In Russian]
Aksenova N.A., Remizov G.A., Romashova A.T. (Eds.). 1979. Methodical recommendations for the organisation of phenological works in the schools. Moscow: Moscow Branch of the USSR Geographical Society. 52 p. [In Russian]
Aksenova N.A., Remizov G.A., Romashova A.T. 1985. Phenological research in school forestries. Moscow: Agropromizdat. 95 p. [In Russian]
Bulygin N.E., Tavrovsky V.A., Kharina S.D., Shchegolev S.V. (Eds.). 1982. Phenological observations (organisation, conducting, processing). Leningrad: Nauka. 224 p. [In Russian]
Butorina T.N. 1979. Bioclimatic zoning of the Krasnoyarsky Krai. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 230 p. [In Russian]
Filonov K.P., Nukhimovskaya Yu.D. 1990. Chronicle of Nature in the nature reserves of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka. 160 p. [In Russian]
Galakhov N.N. 1959. Study of the structure of climatic seasons of the year. Moscow: AS USSR. 184 p. [In Russian]
GBIF. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Available from https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-04-28
Gilman S.E., Urban M.C., Tewksbury J., Gilchrist G.W., Holt R.D. 2010. A framework for community interactions under climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25(6): 325–331. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.03.002
Gorlenko M.V., Bondartseva M.A., Garibova L.V., Sidorova I.I., Sizova T.P. 1980. Fungi of the USSR. Moscow: Mysl. 303 p. [In Russian]
Ivanenko B.I. 1962. Phenology of tree and shrub species. Moscow: Selkhozizdat. 184 p. [In Russian]
Koblik E.A., Redkin Ya.A., Arkhipov V.Yu. 2006. List of birds of the Russian Federation. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press Ltd. 256 p. [In Russian]
Kupriyanova M.K., Novozhenov Yu.I., Schennikova Z.G. 2000. Phenological observations in extracurricular local history work. Yekaterinburg: Bank of cultural information. 244 p. [In Russian]
Liu Y., Dai J., Wang H., Ye Y., Liu H. 2016. Phenological records in Guanzhong Area in central China between 600 and 902 AD as proxy for winter half-year temperature reconstruction. Science China Earth Sciences 59(9): 1847–1853. DOI: 10.1007/s11430-016-5325-5
Maevskiy P.F. 2014. Flora of the middle belt of the European Russia. 11th ed. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press Ltd. 635 p. [In Russian]
Meier U. (Ed.). 2018. Growth stages of mono- and dicotyledonous plants: BBCH Monograph. Quedlinburg: Open Agrar Repositorium. 204 p.
Meier U., Bleiholder H., Buhr L., Feller C., Hack H., Heß M., Lancashire P.D., Schnock U., Stauß R., van den Boom T., Weber E., Zwerger P. 2009. The BBCH system to coding the phenological growth stages of plants – history and publications. Journal für Kulturpflanzen 61(2): 41–52. DOI: 10.5073/JfK.2009.02.01
Minin A.A., Prokosheva I.V., Sapelnikova I.I., Shuyskaya E.A. 2018. State of phenological observations and research in Russia. In: Chronicle of the Nature of Russia: phenology. Velikiye Luki: Velikolukskaya tipografiya. P. 8–17. [In Russian]
Ovaskainen O., Skorokhodova S., Yakovleva M., Sukhov A., Kutenkov A, Kutenkova N., Shcherbakov A., Meyke E., and del Mar Delgado M. 2013. Community-level phenological response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(33): 13434–13439. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1305533110
Ovaskainen O., Meyke E., Lo C., Tikhonov G., Delgado M.D.M., Roslin T., Gurarie E., Abadonova M., Abduraimov O., Adrianova O., Akimova T., Akkiev M., Ananin A., Andreeva E., Andriychuk N., Antipin M., Arzamascev K., Babina S., Babushkin M., Bakin O., Barabancova A., Basilskaja I., Belova N., Belyaeva N., Bespalova T., Bisikalova E., Bobretsov A., Bobrov V., Bobrovskyi V., Bochkareva E. et al. 2020. Chronicles of nature calendar, a long-term and large-scale multitaxon database on phenology. Scientific Data 7(1): 47. DOI: 10.1038/s41597-020-0376-z
Parmesan C., Yohe G. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421(6918): 37–42. DOI: 10.1038/nature01286
POWO. 2020. Plants of the World Online. Available from http://powo.science.kew.org/
Polikarpova N.V., Makarova O.A. 2016. Phenological atlas of plants. Ryazan: Golos gubernii. 236 p. [In Russian]
Preobrazhenskiy S.M., Galakhov N.N. 1948. Phenological observations. Moscow: General Directorate of Nature Reserves. 158 p. [In Russian]
Prokosheva I.V. 2017. Dynamics of phenology process in mountain taiga zone of Vishera Nature Reserve (Northern Urals) under the influence of climatic changes. Problems of ecological monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 40-55. DOI: 10.21513/0207-2564-2017-2-40-55. [In Russian]
Prokhnenko T.A. (Ed.). 1986. The preparation of calendars of nature. Proceedings of the Stolby State Nature Reserve 14: 1–168. [In Russian]
Serebryakov I.G. 1962. Ecological morphology of plants. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 378 p. [In Russian]
Shigolev A.A., Shimanyuk A.P. 1962. Study of seasonal phenomena. Moscow: Uchpedgiz. 245 p. [In Russian]
Shimanyuk A.P. 1957. What and how to observe in nature. Methodology and programme of phenological observations. Moscow: AS USSR. 60 p. [In Russian]
Shnelle F. 1961. Plant phenology. Leningrad: Hydrometeoizdat. 258 p. [In Russian]
Shults G.E. (Ed.). 1966. Methods of phenological observations in botanical research. Leningrad: Nauka. 104 p. [In Russian]
Shults G.E. 1981. General phenology. Leningrad: Nauka. 188 p. [In Russian]
Tavrovskiy V.A. (Ed.). 1977. Phenology in school. Moscow: Moscow Branch of the USSR Geographical Society. 80 p. [In Russian]
Tao Z., Wang H., Liu Y., Xu Y., Dai J. 2017. Phenological response of different vegetation types to temperature and precipitation variations in northern China during 1982–2012. International Journal of Remote Sensing 38(11): 3236–3252. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2017.1292070
Valladares F., Matesanz S., Guilhaumon F., Araújo M.B., Balaguer L., Benito-Garzón M., Cornwell W., Gianoli E., van Kleunen M., Naya D.E., Nicotra A.B., Poorter H., Zavala M.A. 2014. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change. Ecology Letters 17(11): 1351–1364. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12348
Visser M., Both C. 2005. Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: The need for a yardstick. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272(1581): 2561–2569. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3356
Zharkov I.V. 1956. The simplest observations in nature. Moscow: Selkhozizdat. 128 p. [In Russian]
Zheng F., Tao Z., Liu Y., Xu Y., Dai J., Ge Q. 2016. Variation of main phenophases in phenological calendar in East China and their response to climate change. Advances in Meteorology 2016: 9546380. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2017.1292070