Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, PhD, Associate Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia); iD ORCID:; e-mail:
Sally Soo Kaicheen, PhD, Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia); iD ORCID:; e-mail:

Reference to article

Kaicheen S.S., Mohd-Azlan J. 2022. Community structures of mid-sized to large-bodied mammals in tropical lowland and lower montane forests in Gunung Pueh National Park, Western Sarawak, Borneo. Nature Conservation Research 7(1): 70–79.

Section Research articles

Habitat types are closely associated with altitude gradients in tropical rainforests and play an essential role in species assemblages where terrain heterogeneity is often used to understand effects of climate change on species distribution. The response of larger mammals to habitat variation along altitudes is largely unexplored in Borneo. This study has utilised camera traps to better understand the community structure of larger mammals in Gunung Pueh National Park. Gunung Pueh National Park (1550 m a.s.l.) contains two major habitat types, which include lowland forests (< 1100 m a.s.l.) and the lower montane (> 1100 m a.s.l.) forests. The spatio-temporal niches of mid-sized to large-bodied mammal species across these altitude gradients and habitats were assessed. Cameras located at 23 locations, along varying altitude gradients, resulted in 3109 trap nights. Using these cameras, the collected recordings have revealed a total of 22 mid-sized to large-bodied mammals, including 19 species recorded in lowland forest areas, and 18 species in the lower montane forest areas; 15 species were found in both habitats. Four species were exclusively detected in the lowland forest, namely Rusa unicolor, Viverra tangalunga, Presbytis chrysomelas, and Hystrix brachyura. Three species were detected only in the lower montane forest, namely Herpestes semitorquatus, Mustela nudipes, and Hemigalus hosei. In the lowland forest, Macaca nemestrina was recorded with the highest naïve occupancy (naïve ψ = 1.00), while Hemigalus derbyanus had the highest naïve occupancy (naïve ψ = 0.93) in the lower montane forest. The temporal diel activity patterns of selected species in the two habitats have shown relatively close similarities, with overlapping patterns ranging between 67–90%. The further conservation of a large area, which encompasses mountainous ranges, is recommended to facilitate the conservation efficacy of such Protected Areas and for supporting diverse, mid-sized to large-bodied mammals in Borneo.


activity pattern, altitude, detection, habitat, occupancy

Artice information

Received: 26.07.2021. Revised: 22.12.2021. Accepted: 07.02.2022.

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