Elena G. Krupa, RSE “Institute of Zoology" CS MES RK, Almaty, Kazakhstan, e-mail:
Sophia M. Romanova, Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi CS MES RK, Almaty, Kazakhstan, e-mail: sofу
Aiman K. Imentai, RSE “Institute of Zoology" CS MES RK, Almaty, Kazakhstan, e-mail:

Reference to article

Krupa E.G., Romanova S.M., Imentai A.K. 2016. Hydrochemical and toxicological characteristics of state national nature park “Kolsay Kolderi" lakes (Kungei Alatau, South-Eastern Kazakhstan). Nature Conservation Research 1(1): 2–10.

Section Research articles

In August 2015 four ultrafresh mountain lakes of Kolsay National Nature Park, located at an altitude of 1829–3170 m a.s.l., were examined. The water mineralization of the lakes decreased from 123.9 to 26.6 mg/dm3 with decreasing altitude above sea level. The concentration of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen compounds was at levels below the temporary maximum allowable concentration (MAC). Phosphorus has not been found in the water. The concentration of iron in the water has reached 44.0–440.0 g/dm3. The concentration of heavy metals in the water, except copper, was 10–100 times lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for standards of fishery waterbodies. The concentration of copper in water exceeded the permissible limits 2.6–5.5 times. The concentration of lead, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium in water has decreased from Lower Kolsay to Upper Kolsay. The most highland and shallow lake, which located under the Sarybulak mountain pass, had a higher concentration of lead, copper, zinc and nickel in the water than in the downstream lakes. The concentration of zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt and nickel in the water of the other high mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan has not exceeded 0.7 of MAC temporary. The concentration of copper has reached 1.5–13.9 of MAC temporary. In mountain lakes and reservoirs, the metal concentrations in the water decreased at lower altitudes, similar but less pronounce to their spatial dynamics in mountain rivers. Background concentration of cadmium and zinc in the mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan was equivalent to the uncontaminated waters of the Tien Shan, the Alps and the Western Sayan mountain ranges. However, the concentration of copper, lead and chromium were higher respectively. Considering the remoteness of the region from the sources of anthropogenic influences, the background concentrations of heavy metals for water reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan are recommended as follows (mg/ dm3): zinc – 0.0020–0.0061, copper – 0.0052–0.0106, cadmium – 0.0002–0.0004, lead – 0.0017–0.0029, chrome – 0.0017–0.0028. The elevated environmental level of copper in water of water sources should be considered during the development of regional standards of the MAC.


biogenic compounds, heavy metals, Kolsay Lakes, Kungei Alatau, maximum allowable concentration (MAC), mineralization, South-Eastern Kazakhstan.

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