Vjacheslav A. Korzikov, Zoologist, Hygienic and Epidemiological Centre of the Kaluga Region (248021, Kaluga, Moskovskaya Street, 218, apartment 37); e-mail:
Victor V. Aleksanov, Head of the organisational-mass department, Eco-Biological Centre for pupils in Kaluga Region (248023, Kaluga, M. Gorky Str., 52, apartment 27); e-mail:

Reference to article

Korzikov V.A., Aleksanov V.V. 2018. On some factors driving the presence of amphibians in water bodies of the Upper Oka Basin (Central Russia). Nature Conservation Research 3(Suppl.1): 110–119.

Section Research articles

A better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of amphibians is needed to conserve amphibian species in regions highly populated by people. A total of 71 water bodies were examined in the Upper Oka Basin (the Central Part of the Russian Plain, Russia, Kaluga Oblast and adjacent regions). For each site, the presence and absence of 11 amphibian species were determined. We use the logistic regression within the glm function from the R Stats Package to estimate the influence of predictors on the probability of the species presence. The species with the highest occurrence were Pelophylax lessonae, P. ridibundus, Rana temporaria, and Bufo bufo. The type of terrestrial vegetation that surrounded the water body was a significant factor for three amphibian species. We found R. temporaria and B. bufo avoiding open habitats; and P. ridibundus avoiding wooded habitats. The degree of water moving was a significant factor for two amphibian species. Lissotriton vulgaris was present more frequent at lentic waters, and P. ridibundus preferred lotic waters. The percentage of the vegetation covering the water surface was a significant factor for Rana arvalis, which was more often present in water with 50% or more coverage. Acidity was a significant factor for Pseudepidalea viridis, which was detected only in neutral and alkaline waters. Total dissolved salts and the area of water body were significant predictors for no amphibian species. The presence of the Chinese sleeper (Perccottus glenii), an invasive fish species, was not significantly important in predicting detection or non-detection for any species. Many water bodies in the Upper Oka Basin that were likely once suitable for amphibians may not be occupied by amphibians due to barriers to dispersal from other sites and due to stochastic extinction. To estimate the capability of amphibian immigration from other sources, we identified the presence of lotic and lentic permanent water bodies within 1 km of a surveyed site. These factors were not significant for any species. Further investigations may achieve the best measure of connectivity of amphibian habitats. To conserve amphibians we need to keep terrestrial habitats surrounding the water bodies, especially wooded habitats.


acidity, Amphibia, aquatic vegetation coverage, Chinese sleeper, lentic water, lotic water, River Oka, terrestrial vegetation, total dissolved salts, wooded habitat

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Received: 01.04.2018

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