Article

Article name THE EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE PATTERN ON THE 2010 WILDFIRE SPREAD IN THE MORDOVIA STATE NATURE RESERVE, RUSSIA
Authors

Anastasia O. Kharitonova, Junior Researcher of the Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity of RAS (117997 Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya st. 84/32 bldg. 14); iD ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0312-942X; e-mail: charitonova-ao@yandex.ru
Tatiana I. Kharitonova, PhD, associate professor of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (119234, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1, office 1820-A); iD ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9375-5589; e-mail: kharito2010@gmail.com

Reference to article

Kharitonova A.O., Kharitonova T.I. 2021. The effect of landscape pattern on the 2010 wildfire spread in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve, Russia. Nature Conservation Research 6(2). https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.022

Section Research articles
DOI https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.022
Abstract

This study was aimed to identify natural complexes, which, after the wildfire of 2010, served as natural barriers to the fire spread in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia), and to assess the role of landscape surroundings in reducing the fire severity. The paper investigates the properties, size and pattern of landscape complexes at the local scale in 200-m boundary zones where a fire stops or changes its severity. Three fire severity classes were associated with field and spectral diagnostic features. The high-severity class is detected on satellite images by a sharp reduction in phytomass from June to September in the year of the wildfire impact. Classes of medium and low severity fire are detected by a gradual decrease in phytomass within four years after the wildfire. In the Mordovia State Nature Reserve, the area affected by the fire is estimated at 151 km2. Based on the landscape map of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve, the proportion of various types of landscape complexes was calculated within the border zones, adjacent to the front side: 1) to the general fire perimeter, 2) to the boundaries of the inner non-burned islands, 3) to the boundaries dividing a high-severity fire from a medium and low fire severity. We found that the occurrence of hydromorphic complexes is 1.5–10.0 times higher on the side of the considered boundaries where the fire energy decreases. Within the fire perimeter, hydromorphic complexes either become hotbeds of high fire severity due to the high amount of available fuel, or form islands of unburned forest. The success of hydromorphic complexes in stopping or slowing a fire depends more on their size than on the level of wetness. The width of swampy and damp river channels was measured along the entire length with a 1-km interval. Diameter measurements were made for swampy depressions. We found that narrow swampy river channels of 150–160-m wide do not present a fire barrier and completely burn out in a high-severity fire. River segments, where the channel width increases up to 170–180 m, present a barrier for a low-severity fire, but do not slow down the spread of medium or high-severity fire. River valleys of 200–250-m width mostly do not burn, but also do not present a barrier because a high-severity fire jumps to other sides of the valley and spreads further. A low-severity fire dies down, and a stronger fire subsides when it meets a river channel 250–300 m wide. River valleys, over 700 m wide, act as a barrier to any wildfire type. Swampy depressions do not act as fire breaks, but their clusters increase landscape heterogeneity and slow down the fire. The average diameter of mires in the perimeter of a high fire severity is 32 m; their area proportion is 0.07%. The diameter of mires in the perimeter of medium and low fire severity increases on average up to 63–77 m. And their area proportion increases up to 0.40–0.59%.

Keywords

fire severity, Landsat 5, Landsat 8, landscape metrics, remote sensing, wildfire border zone

Artice information

Received: 02.09.2020. Revised: 15.02.2021. Accepted: 17.02.2021.

The full text of the article
References

Agee J.K. 1996. The influence of forest structure on fire behavior. In: Proceedings of the 17th annual forest vegetation management conference. Redding, CA: University of California. P. 52–68.
Agee J.K. 1998. The landscape ecology of western forest fire regimes. Northwest Science 72(17): 24–34.
Agee J.K. 2002. The fallacy of passive management managing for firesafe forest reserves. Conservation in Practice 3(1): 18–26. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-4629.2002.tb00023.x
Artsybashev E.S. 2014. The impact of forest fires on silvan biogeocenoses. Biosfera 6(1): 53–59. [In Russian]
Bartalev S.A., Stytsenko F.V., Egorov V.A., Loupian E.A. 2015. Satellite-based assessment of Russian forest fire mortality. Russian Journal of Forest Science 2: 83–94. [In Russian]
Chafer C.J., Noonan M., Macnaught E. 2004. The post-fire measurement of fire severity and intensity in the Christmas 2001 Sydney wildfires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13(2): 227–240. DOI: 10.1071/WF03041
Furyaev V.V., Baranov N.M. 1972. About precision of accounting of quantity of soil fuels. In: N.P. Kurbatsky, E.V. Konev (Eds.): Issues of Forest Pyrology. Krasnoyarsk: Institute of Forest and Wood SB AS USSR. P. 164–170. [In Russian]
Furyaev V.V., Chernykh V.A., Zlobina L.P. 2010. The role of regrowth in the formation of forest fuel complex and decrease in fire resistance of ribbon-like pine forests. Russian Journal of Forest Science 3: 15–20. [In Russian]
Harris L., Taylor A.H. 2015. Topography, fuels, and fire exclusion drive fire severity of the Rim Fire in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest, Yosemite National Park, USA. Ecosystems 18(7): 1192–1208. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9890-9
Johnstone J.F., Rupp T.S., Olson M., Verbyla D. 2011. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests. Landscape Ecology 26(4): 487–500. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-011-9574-6
Kurbatsky N.P. 1964. Problem of Forest Fires. In: N.P. Kurbatsky (Ed.): Emergency of Forest Fires. Moscow: Nauka. P. 5–60. [In Russian]
Kurbatsky N.P. 1972. Types of annealing and their application for localisation of forest fires. In: N.P. Kurbatsky, E.V. Konev (Eds.): Issues of Wildfire Science. Krasnoyarsk: Institute of Forest and Wood SB AS USSR. P. 171–231. [In Russian]
Kushla J.D., Ripple W.J. 1997. The role of terrain in a fire mosaic of a temperate coniferous forest. Forest Ecology and Management 95(2): 97–107. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(97)82929-5
Lee S.W., Lee M.B., Lee Y.G., Won M.S., Kim J.J., Hong S.K. 2009. Relationship between landscape structure and burn severity at the landscape and class levels in Samchuck, South Korea. Forest Ecology and Management 258(7): 1594–1604. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.07.017
Matveeva T.A., Tsykalov A.G. 2010. The role of relief in formation of the stock of forest combustible materials. Conifers of the Boreal Area 27(3–4): 327–329. [In Russian]
Melekhov I.S. 1947. Nature of a Forest and Wildfires. Arkhangelsk: OGIZ. 60 p. [In Russian]
Morrison P.H., Swanson F.J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Portland, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p.
Order of the Federal Forestry Agency dated 05.07.2011 №287 «On the approval of the classification of the natural fire hazard of forests and the classification of fire hazard in forests in relation to weather conditions». In: Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2011. №186. Available from: https://rg.ru/2011/08/24/pojari-dok.html
Osipov V.V. 2012. Annotated catalog of cyclostomes and fish in the Privolzhskaya Lesostep' State Nature Reserve. Proceedings of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve 10: 272–281. [In Russian]
Román-Cuesta R.M., Gracia M., Retana J. 2009. Factors influencing the formation of unburned forest islands within the perimeter of a large forest fire. Forest Ecology and Management 258(2): 71–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.041
Ryan K.C. 2002. Dynamic interactions between forest structure and fire behavior in boreal ecosystems. Silva Fennica 36(1): 13–39. DOI: 10.14214/sf.548
Ryu S.R., Chen J., Zheng D., Lacroix J.J. 2007. Relating surface fire spread to landscape structure: an application of FARSITE in a managed forest landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning 83(4): 275–283. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.05.002
San-Miguel I., Andison D.W., Coops N.C. 2017. Characterizing historical fire patterns as a guide for harvesting planning using landscape metrics derived from long term satellite imagery. Forest Ecology and Management 399: 155–165. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.05.021
Swanson F.J. 1981. Fire and geomorphic processes. In: H.A. Mooney, T.M. Bonnicksen, N.L. Christensen, J.E. Lotan, W.A. Reiners (Eds.): Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties. Honolulu: USDA Forest Service. P. 401–420.
Taylor S.W., Pike R.G., Alexander M.E. 1996. Field Guide to the Canadian forest fire behavior prediction (FBP) system. Special Report 11. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. 60 p.
Turner M.G., Romme W.H. 1994. Landscape dynamics in crown fire ecosystems. Landscape Ecology 9(1): 59–77. DOI: 10.1007/BF00135079
Zhuchkova V.K., Rakovskaya E.M. (Eds.). 2004. Methods of holistic physical and geographical research. Moscow: Academy. 368 p. [In Russian]