Article

Article name DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF THE CAUCASIAN PARSLEY FROG, PELODYTES CAUCASICUS (AMPHIBIA: ANURA)
Authors

Spartak N. Litvinchuk, PhD, Senior Researcher of the Group of genome microevolution and cytoecology, Institute of Cytology of RAS (194064, Russia, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Pr., 4); e-mail: litvinchukspartak@yandex.ru
Artem A. Kidov, PhD, Docent of the Russian State Agrarian University – K.A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy (Russia, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya str., 49); e-mail: kidov_a@mail.ru

Reference to article

Litvinchuk S.N., Kidov A.A. 2018. Distribution and conservation status of the Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus (Amphibia: Anura). Nature Conservation Research 3(Suppl.1): 51–60. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2018.053

Section Resarch articles
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2018.053
Abstract

Pelodytes caucasicus inhabits Turkey, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, and six regions of Russia (226 localities). The forest cutting strongly threatens its populations. Therefore, the frog is listed in Red Data Books of Georgia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. Additional factors influencing the decline of P. caucasicus populations are destruction and contamination of suitable water bodies, clearing of forests from fallen trees, destroying of litter, mortality on roads, and preying by the introduced North American raccoon. Using of MaxEnt, we developed a species distribution model based on climate, landscape and land cover data to estimate the potential distribution range, ecological preferences and conservation status of P. caucasicus. Two precipitation parameters, annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, had the highest contribution percentage to the model (52% and 11% respectively). As a rule, suitable habitats for the species located in woodland mountain areas with annual precipitation ranged from 513 mm to 2376 mm. Drier regions to the north and south of the Caucasus limit its distribution.

Keywords

Caucasus, GIS modelling, MaxEnt, Pelodytidae

Artice information

Received: 13.03.2018

The full text of the article
References

Arntzen J.W., Recuero E., Canestrelli D., Martinez-Solano I. 2013. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69(3): 1203–1208. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.012
Askenderov A.D. 2017. Amphibians of Dagestan: Distribution, Ecology, Conservation. PhD Thesis. Togliatti. 226 p. [In Russian]
Bombi P., Luiselli L., Capula M., Salvi D. 2009. Predicting elusiveness: potential distribution model of the Southern smooth snake, Coronella girondica, in Italy. Acta Herpetologica 4(1): 7–13. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-2950
Bozhanskiy A.T., Semenov D.V. 1981. Biology of breeding of the Caucasian parsley frog. In: Biological Aspects of Protection of Rare Animals. Moscow. P. 75–78. [In Russian]
Brito J.C., Fahd S., Martínez-Freírea F., Tarroso P., Larbes S., Pleguezuelos J.M., Santos X. 2011. Climate change and peripheral populations: predictions for a relict Mediterranean viper. Acta Herpetologica 6(1): 105–118. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-9583
Darevsky I.S. 1987. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in nature reserves of the Caucasus. In: Amphibians and Reptiles of Protected Areas. Moscow. P. 85–101. [In Russian]
Doronin I.V. 2013. The Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. Cherkessk: Nartizdat. P. 75. [In Russian]
Duan R.-Y., Kong X.-Q., Huang M.-Y., Varela S., Ji X. 2016. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China. PeerJ 4: e2185. DOI 10.7717/peerj.2185
Dufresnes C., Litvinchuk S.N., Leuenberger J., Ghali K., Zinenko O., Stöck M., Perrin N. 2016. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis). Molecular Ecology 25(17): 4285–4300. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13706
Dzuev R.I., Ivanov I.V. 2000. The Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic. Nalchik: El'Fa. P. 154–155. [In Russian]
Elith J. 2002. Quantitative methods for modeling species habitat: comparative performance and an application to Australian plants. In: Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology. New York: Springer. P. 39–58. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-22648-6_4
Franzen M. 1999. Verbreitung und Ökologie von Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896 in der Türkei. Salamandra, Rheinbach 35(1): 1–18.
Franzen M. 2012. Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896 – Kaukasischer Schlammtaucher. In: Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 5/1: Froschlurche (Anura) I (Alytidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelodytidae, Pelobatidae). Wiebelsheim: Aula-Verlag. P. 367–395.
Garcia-Porta J., Litvinchuk S.N., Crochet P.A., Romano A., Geniez Ph., Lo-Valvo M., Lymberakis P., Carranza S. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63(1): 113–130. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.019
Golubev N.S. 1980. On distribution of the Caucasian parsley frog Pelodytes caucasicus (Amphibia, Pelobatidae). Vestnik Zoologi 3: 52–55. [In Russian]
Golubev N.S. 1981. Breeding of the Caucasian parsley frog – Pelodytes caucasicus (Amphibia, Pelobatidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 60: 1645–1648. [In Russian]
Golubev N.S. 1985. The Caucasian Parsley Frog – Pelodites caucasicus Boulenger (Distribution, Morphology, Ecology). PhD Thesis. Leningrad: Zoological Institute of AN SSSR. 306 p. [In Russian]
Gül S. 2014. Habitat preferences of endemic Caucasian parsley frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) Boulenger, 1896 and Caucasian salamander (Mertensiella caucasica) (Waga, 1876) based on bioclimatic data of Fırtına Valley (Rize, Northeastern Anatolia). Anadolu Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi 5(2): 24–29.
Gül S., Kumlutaş Y., Ilgaz Ç. 2018. Potential distribution under different climatic scenarios of climate change of the vulnerable Caucasian salamander (Mertensiella caucasica): A case study of the Caucasus Hotspot. Biologia 73(2): 175–184. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-018-0020-y
Hernandez P.A., Graham C.H., Master L.L., Albert D.L. 2006. The effect of sample size and species characteristics on performance of different species distribution modeling methods. Ecography 29(5): 773–785. DOI: 10.1111/j.0906-7590.2006.04700.x
Iannella M., Cerasoli F., Biondi M. 2017. Unraveling climate influences on the distribution of the parapatric newts Lissotriton vulgaris meridionalis and L. italicus. Frontiers in Zoology 14: 55. DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0239-4
Iğci N., Akman B., Göçmen B., Adakul A., Oğuz M.A. 2013. A new locality record of Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896 (Amphibia: Anura: Pelodytidae) in the eastern Black Sea region of Anatolia. Biharean Biologist 7(1): 54–56.
Kacharava W. (Ed.). 1982. Red Data Book of Georgian SSR. Tbilisi: Sabchota Sarkatvelo. 256 p. [In Georgian]
Kaya U., Tuniyev B., Tuniyev S., Kuzmin S., Tarkhnishvili D., Papenfuss T., Sparreboom M., Ugurtas I., Anderson S., Eken G., Kiliç T., Gem E. 2009. Pelodytes caucasicus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009.RLTS.T39422A10236383.en
Kuzmin S.L. 2000. The Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1838. In: Red Data Book of Russian Federation. Animals. Moscow: AST Astrel. P. 317–318. [In Russian]
Kuzmin S.L. 2013. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Revised Second Edition. Sofia – Moscow: Pensoft. 384 p.
Litvinchuk S.N. 2017. Distribution and conservation status of the banded newt, Ommatotriton ophryticus (Amphibia: Caudata). Nature Conservation Research 2(1): 33–39. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2017.054 [In Russian]
Litvinchuk S.N., Borkin L.J. 2009. Evolution, Systematics and Distribution of Crested Newts (Triturus cristatus complex) in the Territory of Russia and Adjacent Countries. St. Petersburg: Evropeyskiy dom. 592 p. [In Russian]
Litvinchuk S.N., Borkin L.J., Skorinov D.V., Rosanov J.M. 2008. A new species of common toads from the Talysh Mountains, south-eastern Caucasus: genome size, allozyme, and morphological evidences. Russian Journal of Herpetology 15(1): 19–43.
Litvinchuk S.N., Crottini A., Federici S., De Pous P., Donaire D., Andreone F., Kalezić M.L., Džukić G., Lada G.A., Borkin L.J., Rosanov J.M. 2013. Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in the common spadefoot toad, Pelobates fuscus (Anura: Pelobatidae), reveals evolutionary history, postglacial range expansion and secondary contact. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 13(3): 433–451. DOI: 10.1007/s13127-013-0127-5
Lotiev K.Y. 2007. The Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of Chechnya Republic. Rare and Threatened Species of Plants and Animals. Groznyi: Southern Publishing House. P. 271–272. [In Russian]
Lotiev L.Y., Tuniyev B.S. 2017. The Caucasian parsley frog, Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of South Ossetia. Nalchik: Poligrafservis i T. P. 218–219. [In Russian]
Lyet A., Thuiller W., Cheylan M., Besnard A. 2013. Fine-scale regional distribution modelling of rare and threatened species: bridging GIS Tools and conservation in practice. Diversity and Distributions 19(7): 651–663. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12037
Phillips S.J., Dudík M. 2008. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31(2): 161–175. DOI: 10.1111/j.0906-7590.2008.5203.x
Phillips S.J., Anderson R.P., Schapire R.E. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190(3–4): 231–259. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026
Skorinov D.V., Doronin I.V., Kidov A.A., Tuniyev B.S., Litvinchuk S.N. 2014. Distribution and conservation status of the Caucasian newt, Lissotriton lantzi (Wolterstorff, 1914). Russian Journal of Herpetology 21(4): 251–268.
Swets K. 1988. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 240(4857): 1285–1293.
Tarkhnishvili D.N., Gokhelashvili R.K. 1999. The amphibians of the Caucasus. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union 4: 1–212.
Tarkhnishvili D., Kaya U., Gavashelishvili A., Serbinova I. 2008. Ecological divergence between two evolutionary lineages of the Caucasian salamander: evidence from GIS analysis. Herpetological Journal 18: 155–163.
Tarkhnishvili D., Gavashelishvili A., Mumladze L. 2012. Palaeoclimatic models help to understand current distribution of Caucasian forest species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105(1): 231–248. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01788.x
Tosonoğlu M., Taskavak E. 2004. A preliminary study on morphology and serology of Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896 populations from North-Eastern Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7(7): 1186–1190. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2004.1186.1190
Tuniyev B.S. 1985. Rare and threatened amphibians and reptiles of the Caucasian Nature Reserve. In: Ecological Studies in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov State University. P. 104–116. [In Russian]
Tuniyev B.S. 1990. On the independence of the Colchis center of amphibian and reptile speciation. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 67–84.
Tuniyev B.S. 2018. Modern state of herpetofauna of the Ritsa Relic National Park and new faunistic records in the Abkhazia Republic. Proceedings of the Ritsa Relic National Park 1: 119–129. [In Russian]
Tuniyev B.S., Tuniyev S.B. 2012. The Caucasian parsley frog - Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of Republic of Adygheya. Rare and Threatened Representatives of the Regional Fauna and Flora. 2nd Edition. Maykop: Kachestvo. P. 235–236. [In Russian]
Tuniyev B.S., Tuniyev S.B. 2017. The Caucasian parsley frog Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of Krasnodarsky Krai. Animals. 3rd Edition. Krasnodar. P. 482–484. [In Russian]
Tuniyev B.S., Lotiev K.Yu., Tuniyev S.B., Gabaev V.N., Kidov A.A. 2017. Amphibians and reptiles of South Ossetia. Nature Conservation Research 2(2): 1–23. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2017.002 [In Russian]
Udovkin S.I., Lipkovich A.D. 1999. The Caucasian parsley frog Pelodytes caucasicus Boulenger, 1896. In: Red Data Book of North Ossetia-Alania. Rare and Threatened Species of Plants and Animals. Vladikavkaz: Proekt-Press. P. 193. [In Russian]
van Riemsdijk I., Arntzen J.W., Bogaerts S., Franzen M., Litvinchuk S.N., Olgun K., Wielstra B. 2017. The Near East as a cradle of biodiversity: a phylogeography of banded newts (genus Ommatotriton) reveals extensive inter- and intraspecific genetic differentiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 114: 73–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.028
Vences M., Brown J.L., Lathrop A., Rosa G.M., Cameron A., Crottini A., Dolch R., Edmonds D., Freeman K.L.M., Glaw F., Grismer L.L., Litvinchuk S., Milne M.G., Moore M., Solofo J.F., Noël J., Nguyen T.Q., Ohler A., Randrianantoandro C., Raselimanana A.P., van Leeuwen P., Wogan G.O.U., Ziegler T., Andreone F., Murphy R.W. 2017. Tracing a toad invasion: lack of mitochondrial DNA variation, haplotype origins, and potential distribution of introduced Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Madagascar. Amphibia-Reptilia 38(2): 197–207. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003104
Warren D.L., Glor R.E., Turelli M. 2010. ENMTools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models. Ecography 33(3): 607–611. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.06142.x
Wetterings R., Vetter K.C. 2018. Invasive house geckos (Hemidactylus spp.): their current, potential and future distribution. Current Zoology 64(3). DOI: 10.1093/cz/zox052
Wielstra B., Crnobrnja-Isailović J., Litvinchuk S.N., Reijnen B., Skidmore A.K., Sotiropoulos K., Toxopeus A.G., Tzankov N., Vukov T., Arntzen J.W. 2013a. Tracing glacial refugia of Triturus newts based on mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and species distribution modeling. Frontiers in Zoology 10(1): 13. DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-13
Wielstra B., Litvinchuk S.N., Naumov B., Tzankov N. Arntzen J.W. 2013b. A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3682(3): 441–453. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3682.3.5
Zinenko A.I., Goncharenko L.A. 2009. Catalogue of Collections of the Museum of Nature at V.N. Karazin's Kharkiv National University. Amphibians (Amphibia). Reptiles (Reptilia): Crocodiles (Crocodylia), Turtles (Testudines). Kharkiv: V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. [In Russian]