Nicaise D. Amundala, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Tropenbos International, Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo; e-mail:
Pilipili Kasereka, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Silvestre M. Gambalemoke, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Jan Kennis, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Belgium
Charlotte Beneker, Tropenbos International, Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Alphonse M.-N. Maindo, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Tropenbos International, Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; University of Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Akaibe M. Dudu, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Biodiversity Monitoring Center, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Pionus G.-B. Katuala, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Reference to article

Amundala N.D., Kasereka P., Gambalemoke S.M., Kennis J., Beneker C., Maindo A.M.-N., Ngbolua K.N., Dudu A.M., Katuala P.G.-B. 2018. Farmers survey of wild mammals species implicated in crop damage in the Okapi Wildlife Reserve (OWR-Epulu, Democratic Republic of the Congo): severity and control strategies. Nature Conservation Research 3(1): 58–64. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2018.007

Section Resarch articles

Investigations on mammal species implicated in crop damage and control techniques used to protect fields was carried out in the Okapi Wildlife Reserve (OWR). The aim of this study was to identify mammal species causing damages on crops, the growth stages affected, the frequency and severity of damage in the fields and control techniques used. Data were collected in six villages using a standard questionnaire form translated in the main local languages (Swahili and Lingala), between 02–29 June and 07–31 August 2010. A probabilistic survey and structured interview have been used to collect data. Farmers of 7 main tribes were interviewed (a total of 210 farmers) who are living in OWR. The study shows that Primates (Cercocebus galeritus agilis, Papio anubis) and elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) cause considerable damage during maturation and fructification of maize, cassava and bananas in the fields. Farmers keep their fields under guard to drive away animals and prevent crop damage.


crop damage, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve, wild mammals

Artice information

Received: 18.07.2017

The full text of the article

Amundala D.N., Kennis J., Leirs H., Dudu A.M. 2008. Farmer survey in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratique Republic of Congo) on rodent crop damage and rodent control techniques used. Mammalia 72: 192–197. DOI: 10.1515/MAMM.2008.034
Baraka F. 2009. Rapport de recensement humain effectué dans la RFO.WCS/ICCN-RFO. 30 p.
Budjo D., Batido D. 2009. Données météorologiques et températures (1986–2007). Epulu: CEFRECOF/-WCS, Volet botanique. 15 p.
Carpaneto G.M., Germi F.P. 1989. The Mammals in the Zoological culture of the Pygmies in the North-easthern Zaire Hystrix 1: 1–83.
CBFP. 2006. The forests of the Congo Basin: State of the Forest 2006. Report. 186 p.
De Vos N., Omar A. 1970. Monkeys pests crops in Kenya in forest ecosystems in Africa. ED. Ostrom UNESCO. 277 p.
Dudley J.P., Mensah-Ntiamoah A.Y., Kpelle D.G. 1992. Forest elephants in a rainforest fragment: preliminary findings from a wildlife conservation project in southern Ghana. African Journal of Ecology 30: 116–126. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.1992.tb00485.x
Duvigneaud P. 1974. La synthèse écologique: Populations, Communautés, Ecosystèmes, Biosphère, Noosphère. Paris: Doin, 286 p.
Grawitz M. 2001. Méthodes des sciences sociales. 11th edition. Paris: Dalloz. P. 533–569.
Guinness S.Mc., Taylor D. 2014. Farmers' Perceptions and Actions to Decrease Crop Raiding by Forest Dwelling Primates Around a Rwandan Forest Fragment. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 19(2): 179–190. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2014.853330
Kagoro-Rugunda G. 2004. Crop raiding around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 42: 32–41. DOI: 10.1111/j.0141-6707.2004.00444.x
Kambale S. 1998. Comparative feeding ecology of sympatric Mangabeys (Cercocebus albigena and C. galeritus agilis) in relation to crop raiding in the Okapi Wildlife Reserve RDC. Master's Degree Thesis. Makerere: University of Makerere. P. 87–96.
Kingdon J. 2015. Mammiferes d'Afrique. Paris, Delachaux et Niestle. 272 p.
Kümpel N.F., Quinn A., Queslin E., Grange S., Mallon D., Mapilanga J.-J. 2015. Okapi (Okapia johnstoni): Conservation Strategy and Status Review. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (ICCN). 58 p. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2015.SSC-AP.11.en
Loki O., Parker G. 2002. An integrated approach toward problem animal management. In: Human–Wildlife Conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solution. Albertine Rift Technical Report series, Vol 1. Wildlife Conservation Society. P. 121–126.
Lwanzo V. 2008. Aires protégées et sécurité alimentaire des populations riveraines: cas du PN des Virunga. Thesis. Congo DR: University of Goma. 35 p.
Parker G.E., Osborn, F.V., Hoare R.E., Niskanen L.S. (Eds.). 2007. Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Training Course for Community-Based Approaches in Africa. Participant's Manual. Elephant Pepper Development Trust. Nairobi, Kenya; Livingstone, Zambia: IUCN/SSC AfESG. 40 p.
Raemaekers R.H. 2001. Agriculture in tropical Africa. Bruxelles: DGCI. 1005 p.
Scott W.D. 1987. Impact of swidden agriculture and subsistence hunting on diversity and abundance of exploited fauna in the Ituri forest of Northeastern Zaire. PhD Thesis. USA: University of Massachusetts. 223 p.