Article

Article name ASSESSMENT OF THE LONG-TAILED GORAL (NAEMORHEDUS CAUDATUS: BOVIDAE) POPULATION STATUS IN THE SIKHOTE-ALIN RESERVE USING CAMERA-TRAPS
Authors

Olga Yu. Zaumyslova, PhD., Researcher of the Sikhote-Alin State Nature Biosphere Reserve; Russia, 692150, Primorye Krai, Terney district, Terney, Partizanskaya Street, 44; e-mail: olgazaum@mail.ru
Svetlana N. Bondarchuk, Researcher of the Sikhote-Alin State Nature Biosphere Reserve; Russia, 692150, Primorye Krai, Terney district, Terney, Partizanskaya Street, 44; e-mail: bonsal@mail.ru

Reference to article

Zaumyslova O.Yu., Bondarchuk S.N. 2017. Assessment of the Long-tailed Goral (Naemorhedus caudatus: Bovidae) population status in the Sikhote-Alin Reserve using camera-traps. Nature Conservation Research 2(Suppl. 1): 151–163. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2017.024

Section Resarch articles
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2017.024
Abstract

The Long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) is a rare mountain ungulate animal species with a mosaic range. In the Sikhote-Alin Reserve, the goral is located at the northern limit of its distribution. The main part of its population is concentrated in the coastal area, in the Abrek natural landmark. In the early XX century, the goral occupied another small area along the coast – 20 km south of the Abrek natural landmark. Currently, the total area of species' habitats is only 7.1 km2. The aim of this study was to assess the population size, population density and some demographic parameters of the goral population. Also, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the photo-trap method which is a new approach to the study and monitoring of this rare species. Accounting studies in the Abrek natural landmark were carried out in October 2014 – January 2015 (1401 trap-days); also, at the same time we worked in the second area during three seasons (2014–2017, 1326 trap-days). Estimation of the abundance and annual survival of the goral has been carried out using stochastic «capture – recapture» models presented in the software MARK. In the Abrek natural landmark for an effective area of 4 km2 (63% of this habitat's area), the average density of the goral population was 15.4 animals per km2 (CI 95% = 14.6–18.2 individuals per km2), in the second area (0.7 km2) completely accounted – 21.0 individuals per km2 (CI 95% = 20.1–28.6 individuals per km2). The total abundance of goral individuals in the Reserve remains, apparently, at the level of the late 1980s. And currently it is about 110–140 individuals. According to our preliminary data, the total annual survival in the first year was 0.73 (CI 95% = 0.41–0.91), and by the end of the second year it was 0.72 (CI 95% = 0.31–0.93). Female animals have prevailed in the population structure, and the sex ratio for adult animals was 1:1.5. The fertility rate was 0.61. In comparison with the data obtained in the late 1970s, currently the age and sex structure of the goral population has changed somewhat, and the rate of reproduction has decreased. The use of photo-traps significantly improves the quality of the goral population monitoring. However, photo-trap monitoring is a fairly expensive and time-consuming process. So it is advisable to apply this method in habitats which are most important for conservation of this rare species.

Keywords

abundance, Long-tailed goral, Naemorhedus caudatus, photo-trap monitoring, photo-accounting, photo-traps, population density, sex-age population structure

Artice information

Received: 30.03.2017

The full text of the article
References

Anwar M., Chapman J.A. 2000. Distribution and population status of grey goral in the Margalla Hills National Park. Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Research 16: 147–150.
Bromley G.F. 1977. Goral's distribution in the Far East of the USSR. In: Rare mammal species and their conservation. Moscow: Nauka. P. 187–188. [In Russian]
Bromley G.F., Kucherenko S.P. 1983. Ungulates in the south of the Far East of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka. 304 p. [In Russian]
Choi T.Y., Park C.H. 2005. Establishing a Korean Goral (Nemorhaedus caudatus raddeanus Heude) Reserve in Soraksan National Park, Korea: Based on Habitat Suitability Model, Habitat Capability Model, and the Concept of Minimum Viable Population. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 32(6): 23–35.
Chronicle of the Nature in the Sikhote-Alin Reserve. In: Archive of the Sikhote-Alin Reserve, 2008–2014. [In Russian]
Cooch E., White G. 2005. Program MARK: «A Gentle Introduction». 4th edition. Available at: http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book/. Retrieved on 04.05.2017.
Duckworth J.W., MacKinnon J., Tsytsulina K. 2008. Naemorhedus caudatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T14295A4429742. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14295A4429742.en. Downloaded on 04 May 2017.
Foster G., Krijger H., Bangay S. 2007. Zebra fingerprints: towards a computer-aided identification system for individual zebra. African Journal of Ecology 45: 225–227. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00716.x
Gaillard J.-M., Loison A., Toigo C. 2003. Variation in life history traits and realistic population models for wildlife management: the case of ungulates: In: M. Festa Bianchet, M. Apollonio (eds.): Animal behavior and wildlife conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press. P. 115–132.
Gilkinson A.K., Pearson H.C., Weltz F., Davi R.W. 2007. Photo-identification of sea otters using nose scars. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2045–2051. DOI: 10.2193/2006-410
Gormley A.M., Dawson S.M., Slooten E., Bräger S. 2005. Capture-recapture estimates of hector's dolphin abundance at Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 21(2): 204–216. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01224.x
Goswami V.R., Lauretta M.V., Madhusudan M.D., Karanth K.U. 2011. Optimizing individual identification and survey effort for photographic capture–recapture sampling of species with temporally variable morphological traits. Animal Conservation 15: 174–183. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00501.x
Huggins R.M. 1989. On the statistical analysis of capture-recapture experiments. Biometrics 76(1): 133–140. DOI: 10.2307/2336377
Huggins R.M. 1991. Some practical aspects of a conditional likelihood approach to capture experiments. Biometrics 47(2): 725–732. DOI: 10.2307/2532158
Karanth K.U. 1995. Estimating tiger (Panthera tigris) populations from camera-trap data using capture-recapture models. Biological Conservation 71: 333–338. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)00057-W
Karanth K.U., Nichols J.D. 2002. Monitoring tigers and their prey: a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical Asia. Bangalore: Centre for Wildlife Studies. 193 p.
Kendall W.L., Nichols J.D. 1995. On the use of secondary capture-recapture samples to estimate temporary emigration and breeding proportions. Journal of Applied Statistics 22(5–6): 751–762. DOI: 10.1080/02664769524595
Kendall W.L., Nichols J.D., Hines J.E. 1997. Estimating temporary emigration using capture-recapture data with Pollock's robust design. Ecology 78(2): 563–578.
Kim B.-J., Lee B.-K., Lee H., Jang G.-S. 2016. Considering threats to population viability of the endangered Korean long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) using VORTEX. Animal Cells and Systems 20(1): 52–59. DOI: 10.1080/19768354.2015.1127856
Long R.A., MacKay P., Ray J.C., Zielinski W.J. 2008. Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores. Washington, DC: Island Press. 528 p.
Lovari S., Pellizzi B., Boesi R., Fusani L. 2009. Mating dominance amongst male Himalayan tahr: blonds do better. Behavioural Processes 81(1): 20–25. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2008.12.008
McClintock B.T., White G.C. 2009. A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with mark-resight data. Ecology 90(2): 313–320. DOI: 10.1890/08-0973.1
McClintock B.T., White G.C., Antolin M.F., Tripp D.W. 2009. Estimating abundance using mark-resight when sampling is with replacement or the number of marked individuals is unknown. Biometrics 65(1): 237–246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01047.x
Merkle J.A., Fortin D. 2014. Likelihood-based photograph identification: application with photographs of free-ranging bison. Wildlife Society Bulletin 38(1): 196–204. DOI: 10.1002/wsb.382
Mishra C., Van Wieren S.E., Ketner P., Heitkonig I.M.A., Prins H.H.T. 2004. Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian trans-Himalaya. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(2): 344–354. DOI: 10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00885.x
Myslenkov A.I., Voloshina I.V. 1989. Ecology and behaviour of the Amur Goral. Moscow: Nauka. 128 p.
Oli M.K. 1994. Snow leopards and blue sheep in Nepal: densities and predator: prey ratio. Journal of Mammology 75(4): 998–1004. DOI: 10.2307/1382482
Otis D.L., Burnham K.P., White G.C., Anderson D.R. 1978. Statistical inference from capture data on closed animal populations. Wildlife Monographs 62: 1–135.
Red Data Book of Russian Federation (Animals). Moscow: Astrel, 2001. 860 p. [In Russian]
Sandfort R. 2015. Estimating Alpine ibex Capra ibex abundance from photographic sampling. Mammal Review 45(3): 191–195. DOI: 10.1111/mam.12039
Silver S. 2004. Assessing jaguar abundance using remotely triggered cameras. New York: Jaguar Conservation Society. 25 p.
Singh N.J., Milner-Gulland E.J. 2011. Monitoring ungulates in Central Asia: current constraints and future potential. Oryx 45(1): 38–49. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605310000839
Suryawanshi K.R., Bhatnagar Y.V., Mishra C. 2010. Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur. Oecologia 162(2): 453–462. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-009-1467-x
Suryawanshi K.R., Bhatnagar Ya.V., Mishra C. 2012. Standardizing the double-observer survey method for estimating mountain ungulate prey of the endangered snow leopard. Oecologia 169(3): 581–590. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-011-2237-0
Voloshina I.V., Myslenkov A.I. 2001. Amur Goral. In: Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (Animals). Moscow: Astrel. P. 715–717. [In Russian]
Voloshina I.V., Nesterov D.A. 1992. Characteristics of Goral's habitats in the Primorsky Krai. In: Amur Goral. Moscow: Publisher of the Central Research Laboratory. P. 21–35. [In Russian]
White G.C., Burnham K.P. 1999. Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46(suppl. 1): 120–139. DOI: 10.1080/00063659909477239
Yang B.G. 2002. Systematics, ecology and current population status of the goral, Naemorhedus caudatus. PhD thesis. Cheongju: Chungbuk National University.
Zaumyslova O.Yu. 2015. Research of rare animal species. Subdivision 2.1: Amur Goral. In: D.M. Ochagov (ed.): Researches of rare species of plants and animals in State Reserves and National Parks of the Russian Federation over 2005–2014. Vol. 4. Moscow: All-Russian Research Institute of Ecology. P. 268–271. [In Russian]
Zaumyslova O.Yu., Bondarchuk S.N. 2015. The Use of Camera Traps for Monitoring the Population of Long-Tailed Gorals. Achievements in the Life Sciences 9(1): 15–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.als.2015.05.003