Article

Article name PECULIARITIES OF THE IMAGO COLEOPTERA (INSECTA) GROUPS OVERWINTERING IN VARIOUS SUBSTRATA OF THE RESERVE «GALICHYA GORA»
Authors

Mikhail N. Tsurikov, PhD, Senior Researcher, Voronezh State University, Galichya Gora Nature Reserve; 399240, Donskoe village, Zadonsk District, Lipetsk Region, Russia; e-mail: mntsurikov@rambler.ru

Reference to article

Tsurikov M.N. 2016. Peculiarities of the imago Coleoptera (Insecta) groups overwintering in various substrata of the Reserve «Galichya Gora». Nature Conservation Research 1(1): 52–64.

Section Resarch articles
DOI
Abstract

During the 1997–2006 and 2010–2011winter seasons, in the area of Morozova Gora (the nature reserve "Galichya Gora"), in Russia, 1200 samples of various substrata were taken, most of which were 4500 cm3 in volume. In total, 41,854 specimens of 690 species belonging to 52 Coleoptera families were registered at overwintering sites.
The analysis of the peculiarities of imago Coleoptera groups in the major winter habitats showed that in most of the investigated substrata representatives of the Staphylinidae family prevailed both in terms of species diversity and number. It is only under the bark of trees and in deadwood that Carabidae are the most numerous, whereas Latridiidae are prevalent in tinder fungi. Turf has the maximal species saturation during the winter season (the highest percentage of species referring to 18 families was registered here), as well as plant litter (10 families), with turf being the preference of 8 families richest in species diversity.
The imagos of a number of families relatively rich in species – Cantharidae, Malachiidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Oedemeridae, Meloidae, Scraptiidae and Anthribidae – were not found at overwintering sites, which is explained by the preimaginal overwintering of most representatives of the abovementioned families.
It was shown that in substrata which are the least suitable for the overwintering of the imago of most Coleoptera species, the highest percentage of the predominant species was registered since more accessible substrata are used as overwintering sites by the same species from different habitats, which decreases the concentration of imago beetles of certain species there.
A study of the peculiarities of species distribution (with no less than 30 specimens) among overwintering sites showed that the largest number of stenotopic species was registered in droppings (9 species). Then follow the substrata (in decreasing order): turf (5), hay (grass sward, haymow, meadow) (4), decomposing hay (3), decomposing wheat (3) and flour (3), plant litter (2), rotten birch stumps (1), decaying plant matter (1). Stenotopic Coleoptera species were not found in the following substrata: sandbar, decayed plant matter, soil mixed with decomposed hay and droppings, clumps of twigs and stems, hay (a field of perennial grasses), subcortical space and deadwood, tinder fungi.
Cluster analysis revealed that imago Coleoptera groups overwintering in deadwood-related substrata located above the ground level stand out in their species composition. The imago Coleoptera group overwintering in decomposing wheat and flour is also characterised by a peculiar species composition, cereal pests being one of the factors. The species composition of Coleoptera groups overwintering in turf and plant litter as well as in substrata with decaying plant matter (decomposing hay, droppings, plant remains etc.) displayed the highest levels of similarity.
The use of a uniform procedure for collecting material allowed calculating the average number of Coleoptera species overwintering in various substrata. It resulted in working out the major requirements for overwintering sites preferred by most imago beetles: 1) the substratum should be freeze-protected (among others, due to plant remains decomposition); 2) the moderate moisture of the location is important (extreme dryness and excess moisture of the substratum are both unsuitable for the overwintering of imago beetles); 3) the necessary presence of cavities suitable for overwintering (in hay, rotten wood, under the bark etc.); 4) it is desirable that the substrata contain enough food available in late autumn and early spring (smaller invertebrates, fungi etc.).

Keywords

abundance, Coleoptera, overwintering sites, predominant species, substrata

Artice information

Submitted at 11.02.2016

The full text of the article
References

Andersen A. 1997. Densities of overwintering carabids and staphylinids (Col., Carabidae and Staphylinidae) in cereal and grass fields and their boundaries. J. Appl. Entomol. 121 (2): 77–80.
Beard R.C.W., Mauremootoo J.R. 1994. The biodiversity of coleopteran overwintering in arable field boundaries. Brighton Crop Prot. Conf.: Pests and Diseases. 1994: Proc. Int. Conf., Brighton. 21–24 Nov. 2. Farnham. 943–944.
Chernyshev S.E. 1997. Dried Russian flies (Coleoptera, Meloidae) of the Eurasian steppe: extended abstract of PhD thesis in Biology. Novosibirsk. 20 p. [In Russian].
Chernyshev V.B. 2001. Environmental protection of plants. Anthropods in the agricultural ecosystem. M.: MSU. 136 p. [In Russian].
Dennis P., Fry G.L.A. 1992. Field margins: can they enhance natural enemy population densities and general arthropod density on farmland? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 40: 95–115.
D'Hulster M., Desender K. 1984. Ecological and faunal Studies of Coleoptera in agricultural land. 4. Hiberation of Staphylinidae in agro-ecosystems. Pedobiologia. 26 (1): 65–73.
Entomological companion. 1955. М.-L.: Selhozgiz. 451 p. [In Russian].
Hald A.B., Reddersen J. 1990. Fuglefoede I kornmarker – insecter eg vilde planter. Danish Ministry of Enviroment. Danish IPA. Project 125.
Kollat, I., Basedow, Th. 1995. Vergleich von Artenspektrum und Abundanz der Staphylinidae und Carabidae im Feldbereich (Sommer) und Feldrandbereich (Winter) in einer Agrarlandschaft in Hessen (1993/94). Mitt. Deut. Ges. allg. angew. Entomol. 10 (1–6): 497–500 [In German].
Larochelle A. 1972. Collecting hibernating ground beetles in stumps (Coleoptera: Carabidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin. 26 (1): 30.
Löbl I., Smetana A. 2003. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 1. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Eds. Stenstrup: Apollo Boors. 819 p.
Löbl I., Smetana A. 2004. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2. Hydrophiloidea-Histeroidea-Staphylinoidea. Eds. Stenstrup: Apollo Boors. 942 p.
Kostromitin V.B. Crucifer flea beetles. M.: Kolos, 1980. 62 p. [In Russian].
Megalov V.A. Crop pests identification. M.: Kolos, 1968. 176 p. [In Russian].
Nekulisyanu Z.Z., Ostafichuk V.G., Tsygankova A.F. 1987. Biological peculiarities of certain Staphylinidae species of the genus Philonthus Curt. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in Moldovan fauna. Entomological Review. Vol. 66, No. 3. P. 511–518 [In Russian].
Pesenko Yu.A. 1982. Principles of methods of quantitative analysis in faunistic research. M.: Nauka. 287 p. [In Russian].
Rybchin V.E. 1967. On overwintering of the pea beetle. Plant protection. No. 12. P. 48 [In Russian].
Stark V.N. 1931. Forest pest insects. М.-L.: Selhozgiz. 138 p. [In Russian].
Tishler V. 1971. Agricultural ecology. Transl. from German. M.: Kolos. 455 p. [In Russian].
Tsurikov M.N. 2000. On studying overwintering sites of the Invertebrata in the middle part of the river Don area. Biodiversity and ecological peculiarities of the Russian forest-steppe: Collected works. Voronezh: VSU. P. 125–139 [In Russian].
Tsurikov M.N. 2007. On studying winter localisation of coprozoon imago Coleoptera (Coleoptera, Insecta) in the nature reserve «Galichya Gora». Environmental research in the nature reserve «Galichya Gora»: collected works. No. 1. Voronezh: VSU. P. 95–106 [In Russian].
Tsurikov M.N. 2009. Beetles of Lipetsk Oblast. Voronezh: IPC VSU. 332 p. [In Russian].
Tsurikov M.N., Tsurikov S.N. 2001. Nature-friendly methods of studying invertebrates in Russian nature reserves: Works of the Association of specially protected natural areas of the Central Black Earth Region of Russia. No. 4. Tula: Grif & Кº. 130 p. [In Russian].
Vorontsov A.I., Sinadsky Yu. V. 1960. Noxious entomofauna of the common willow (Salix alba L.) in the floodplain planted vegetation of the lower reaches of the Volga. Zoological magazine. Vol. 39, No. 9. P. 1335–1344 [In Russian].