Article

Article name FIRE INFLUENCE ON DYNAMICS OF ABOVE-GROUND PHYTOMASS IN STEPPE PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE BURTINSKAYA STEPPE (ORENBURG STATE NATURE RESERVE, RUSSIA)
Authors

Gulnara Kh. Dusaeva, Junior Researcher, Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch of RAS (460000, 11, Pionerskaya street, Orenburg); e-mail: 16guluy@mail.ru
Olga G. Kalmykova, Senior Researcher, Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch of RAS (460000, 11, Pionerskaya street, Orenburg); e-mail: o.k.81@list.ru
Neilya V. Dusaeva, Junior Researcher, Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch of RAS (460000, 11, Pionerskaya street, Orenburg); e-mail: maksutova1@mail.ru

Reference to article

Dusaeva G.Kh., Kalmykova O.G., Dusaeva N.V. 2019. Fire influence on dynamics of above-ground phytomass in steppe plant communities in the Burtinskaya Steppe (Orenburg State Nature Reserve, Russia). Nature Conservation Research 4(Suppl.1): 78–92. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2019.050

Section Resarch articles
DOI https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2019.050
Abstract

People have significantly influenced on Orenburg region steppes by ploughing large parts of it, or by utilising other parts as mowed grasslands, pastures or abandoning crop production on the old abandoned fields. Frequent fires are another serious threat to the biodiversity of the steppes in the region. The main cause of fires is the anthropogenic factor. This problem is relevant not only for managed areas, but also for Protected Areas. The need to study the fire effects on ecosystems in the Orenburg State Nature Reserve (Russia) has appeared for a long time, once it cleared that a special regime of Protected Areas could not always preserve steppes of fire influence due to the steppe's specifics (i.e., significant length of the fire front and a burnt area, high speed of a fire spread under strong wind). At the same time, it is most relevant to conduct environmental studies in the Protected Areas as ecosystems, least managed and disturbed by humans. It is supplemented by excluding of any impacts within these areas and using data of long-term research accumulated over previous years. In 2015–2016, we carried out the post-fire dynamics of the stock of the above-ground phytomass in the site «Burtinskaya Steppe» in the Orenburg State Natural Reserve. The study area is located in the steppe zone of the Pre-Ural region. In August 2014, more than 20 km2 of the steppe area was on fire. We established six study sites in this area. Each of them included a control (unburnt) and a burnt plots. In each plant community, we conducted the geobotanical surveys and mowing of the above-ground phytomass in spring (May), summer (June), late summer (August), autumn (September). The obtained samples were dried, divided into groups (grasses, forbs, dwarf semi-shrubs) and then weighted. We compared both unburnt and burnt study plots, and found statistically significant differences between them using the Mann-Whitney U-test (α < 0.05) in the total stock of the above-ground phytomass, stock of the dead phytomass, the standing dead phytomass, and litter. In the burnt plant communities, the accumulation peaks of the living grass and forbs phytomass shifted compared to the unburnt plots. During the first two post-fire years, only stock of the living phytomass and its components (grasses, forbs, dwarf semi-shrubs) were restoring. Other components of the above-ground phytomass did not reach the control values. Our data were part of a project for creation a framework to monitor ecosystems in the preserved area after the 2014 fire impact.

Keywords

above-ground phytomass, Orenburg region, Protected Area, pyrogenic factor

Artice information

Received: 30.09.2018. Revised: 10.07.2019. Accepted: 29.07.2019.

The full text of the article
References

Allan G.E., Phillips N.R., Hookey P. 2003. Learning lessons from an exceptional period of fires in Central Australia: 1999 to 2002. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Wildland Fire Conference (3–6 October 2003, Sydney). Sydney. Paper 163. (CD-ROM).
Andersen A.N., Cook G.D., Corbett L.K., Douglas M.M., Eager R.W., Russell‐Smith J., Setterfield S.A., Williams R.J., Woinarski J.C.Z. 2008. Fire frequency and biodiversity conservation in Australian tropical savannas: implications from the Kapalga fire experiment. Austral Ecology 30(2): 155–167. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01441.x
Antonsen H., Olsson P.A. 2005. Relative importance of burning, mowing and species translocation in the restoration of a former boreal hayfield: responses of plant diversity and the microbial community. Journal of Applied Ecology 42(2): 337–347. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01023.x
Augustine D.J., Milchunas D.G. 2009. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning of grazed shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(1): 89–97. DOI: 10.2111/08-135
Augustine D.J., Derner J.D., Milchunas D.G. 2010. Prescribed fire, grazing, and herbaceous plant production in shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63(3): 317–323. DOI: 10.2111/REM-D-09-00044.1
Bates J.D., Rhodes E., Davies K., Sharp R. 2009. Postfire succession in big sagebrush steppe with livestock grazing. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(1): 98–110. DOI: 10.2111/08-096
Bazilevich N.I., Titlyanova A.A., Smirnov V.V., Rodin L.E., Nechaeva N.I., Levin F.I. 1978. Methods of studying the biological cycle in various natural zones. Moscow: Mysl. 185 p. [In Russian]
Borisova I.V. 1965. Rhythms of seasonal development of steppe plants and zonal types of steppe vegetation of Central Kazakhstan. In: Biology and ecology of plants of virgin areas of Kazakhstan. Moscow; Leningrad: Nauka. P. 64–100. [In Russian]
Borisova I.V. 1976. Phenological development of plants. In: Bio-complex research in Kazakhstan. Part 3. Complex characteristics of the main plant communities of the desert steppes of Central Kazakhstan. Leningrad: Nauka. P. 40–50. [In Russian]
Borisova I.V., Popova T.A. 1972. Dynamics of number and age composition of cenopopulations of bunch grasses in desert steppes of Central Kazakhstan. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 7: 779–793. [In Russian]
Chibilev A.A. 1996. Steppe Reserve «Orenburg»: physical-geographical and ecological characteristics. Ekaterinburg: Publishing house of the Ural Branch of RAS. 167 p. [In Russian]
Danilov S.I. 1936. Fire in the Transbaikalian steppes and its influence on vegetation. Vestnik of the Far Eastern Branch of AS USSR 21: 63–81. [In Russian]
Davies K.W., Bates J.D., Miller R.F. 2007. Short-Term Effects of Burning Wyoming Big Sagebrush Steppe in Southeast Oregon. Rangeland Ecology and Management 60(5): 515–522. DOI: 10.2111/1551-5028(2007)60[515:SEOBWB]2.0.CO;2
Davies K.W., Svejcar T.J., Bates J.D. 2008. Influence of long-term livestock grazing exclusion on the response of sagebrush steppe plant communities to fire. In: Oregonstate.edu. Available from https://oregonstate.edu/dept/eoarc/sites/default/files/publication/604.pdf
Davies G.M., Bakker J.D., Dettweiler-Robinson E., Dunwiddie P.W., Hall S.A., Downs J., Evans J. 2012. Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires. Ecological Applications 22(5): 1562–1577. DOI: 10.1890/10-2089.1
Davies K.W., Gearhart A., Boyd C.S., Bates J.D. 2017. Fall and spring grazing influence fire ignitability and initial spread in shrub steppe communities. International Journal of Wildland Fire 26(6): 485–490. DOI: 10.1071/WF17065
Deák B., Valkó O., Schmotzer A., Kapocsi I., Tóthmérész B., Török P. 2012. Grassland burning in Hungary – is it a problem or a promising conservation measure? Journal of Landscape Ecology 10(2): 287–303.
Deák B., Valkó O., Török P., Végvári Zs., Hartel T., Schmotzer A., Kapocsi I., Tóthmérész B. 2014. Grassland fires in Hungary – experiences of nature conservationists on the effects of fire on biodiversity. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 12(1): 267–283. DOI: 10.15666/aeer/1201_267283
Dhillion S.S., Anderson R.C. 1994. Production on burned and unburned sand prairies during drought and non-drought years. Vegetatio 115(1): 51–59. DOI: 10.1007/BF00119386
Dickson T.L., Hayes B.A., Bragg T.B. 2018. Effects of 34 Years of Experimentally Manipulated Burn Seasons and Frequencies on Prairie Plant Composition. Rangeland Ecology and Management 72(1): 82–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.rama.2018.07.014
Drohobych N.E. 2000. Post-pyrogenic dynamics of the aboveground phytomass of the steppe phytocenoses of the Black Sea region In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia: a strategy for the conservation of natural diversity and steppe environmental management in the XXI century. Orenburg: PPC «Gazprompechat». P. 148–150. [In Russian]
Dubinin M.Yu., Lushchekina A.A., Radeloff F.K. 2011. Assessment of the present dynamics of fires in arid ecosystems by use of remote sensing data: The case of chernye zemli. Arid ecosystems 1: 184–192. DOI: 10.1134/S2079096111030061
Dufek N.A., Augustine D.J., Blumenthal D.M., Kray J.A., Derner J.D. 2018. Dormant-Season Fire Inhibits Sixweeks Fescue and Enhances Forage Production in Shortgrass Steppe. Fire Ecology 14(1): 33–49. DOI: 10.4996/fireecology.140132048
Engle D.M., Bidwell T.G., Ewing A.L., Williams J.R. 1989. A technique for quantifying fire behavior in grassland fire ecology studies. The Southwestern Naturalist 34(1): 79–84. DOI: 10.2307/3671812
Fedyunkin D.F. 1953. Impact of dead plant debris and steppe fires on the development of vegetation in forest-steppe Transural. Izvestiya Yestestvenno-Nauchnogo Instituta pri Molotovskom gosudarstvennom universitetete imeni A.M. Gorkogo 7: 621–639. [In Russian]
Fuhlendorf S.D., Engle D.M. 2001. Restoring heterogeneity on rangelands: ecosystem management based on evolutionary grazing patterns. Bioscience 51(8): 625–632. DOI: 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0625:RHOREM]2.0.CO;2
Fuhlendorf S.D., Engle D.M. 2004. Application of the fire-grazing interaction to restore a shifting mosaic on tallgrass prairie. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(4): 604–614. DOI: 10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00937.x
Gavrilenko V.S. 2008. Modern regimes of the reserved steppe of «Askania-Nova» and some results of their influence on the conservation of biodiversity. Nature Reserves in Ukraine 1: 53–61. [In Russian]
Gullap M.K., Erkovan S., Erkovan H.I., Koc A. 2018. Effects of fire on litter, forage dry matter production, and forage quality in steppe vegetation of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 20(1): 61–70.
Hansson M., Fogelfors H. 2000. Management of a semi-natural grassland; results from a 15-year-old experiment in southern Sweden. Journal of Vegetation Science 11(1): 31–38. DOI: 10.2307/3236772
Hoffman O.P. 2015. Age structure of Festuca valesiaca s.l. (Poaceae) under the influence of pyrogenic and patscale factors in the Biosphere Reserve «Askania-Nova». In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia: Materials of the VII International Symposium. Orenburg: PH «Dimur». P. 270–272. [In Russian]
Ilyina V.N. 2011. Pyrogenic effect on vegetation cover. Samarskaya Luka: problems of regional and global ecology 2: 4–30. [In Russian]
Ivanov V.V. 1952. On the question of the role of the steppe fires. Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists 1: 62–69. [In Russian]
Kalmykova O.G. 2006. Factors determining the diversity and features of the vegetation cover of the Burtinskaya steppe. In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia: Proceedings of the IV International Symposium. Orenburg: IPK «Gazprompechat»; LLC «Orenburggazpromservis». P. 333–337. [In Russian]
Kalmykova O.G. 2009. Features of plant communities of the Stipeta lessingianae formation in the Burtinsky steppe. In: A.M. Rusanov (Ed.): Materials of the IV All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference «Problems of the Ecology of the Southern Urals». Orenburg: OSU. P. 266–268. [In Russian]
Kalmykova O.G. 2012. Features of plant communities of the Stipeta zalesskii formation in the Burtinskaya steppe (Orenburg State Nature Reserve). In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia: Proceedings of the VI International Symposium. Orenburg: IPK «Gazprompechat»; LLC «Orenburggazpromservis». P. 349–352. [In Russian]
Kandalova T.G. 2007. The influence of the steppe fires on the real and meadow steppes of the State Reserve «Khakassky». Steppe Bulletin 23–24: 19–24. [In Russian]
Kertész M., Aszalós R., Lengyel A., Ónodi G. 2017. Synergistic effects of the components of global change: Increased vegetation dynamics in open, forest-steppe grasslands driven by wildfires and year-to-year precipitation differences. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0188260. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188260
Kudryavtsev A.Yu. 2016. The impact of fires on the ecosystems of the Poperechenskaya Steppe. In: O.N. Leonova (Ed.): Modern concepts of ecology of biosystems and their role in solving problems of nature conservation and nature management: Materials of the All-Russian (with international participation) scientific school-conference dedicated to the 115th anniversary of A.A. Uranov. Penza: Penza State University. P. 242–244. [In Russian]
Lavrenko E.M. 1950. Some observations on the influence of fire on the vegetation of the northern steppe (Poperechenskaya steppe of the Penza region). Botanicheskii Zhurnal 1: 77–78. [In Russian]
Lavrenko E.M., Korchagin A.A. 1964. Field geobotany. Vol. 3. Moscow: Publishing house of AS USSR. 530 p. [In Russian]
Lavrenko E.M., Korchagin A.A. 1972. Field geobotany. Vol. 4. Leningrad: Nauka. 330 p. [In Russian]
Lysenko G.N. 2006. Stability of steppe phytocoenostructures: thermodynamic aspect. In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia: Materials of the IV International Symposium. Orenburg: PPC «Gazprompechat»; LLC «Orenburggazpromservis». P. 449–451. [In Russian]
Martynova L.V. 2016. Comparative assessment of the impact of pyrogenic factors on vegetation cover of the steppe zone. Bulletin of KrasGAU 6: 112–119. [In Russian]
Mata-González R., Reed-Dustin C.M., Rodhouse T.J. 2018. Contrasting effects of long-term fire on sagebrush steppe shrubs mediated by topography and plant community. Rangeland Ecology and Management 71(3): 336–344. DOI: 10.1016/j.rama.2017.12.007
Ogureyeva G.N. 1999. Zones and types of Vertical zones of vegetation in Russia and adjacent territories. Map for higher education institutions. Scale 1 : 8 000 000. Moscow: Integratsiya. 2 p. [In Russian]
Old S.M. 1969. Microclimate, fire and plant production in an Illinois prairie. Ecological Monographs 39(4): 355–384. DOI: 10.2307/1942353
Pavleichik V.М. 2015. Spatial-temporal structure of fires in the reserved area «Burtinskaya Steppe». Bulletin of the Orenburg Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of RAS 4: 1–12. [In Russian]
Pavleichik V.М. 2016. Long-term dynamics of natural fires in the steppe regions (by the example of the Orenburg region). Bulletin of the Orenburg State University 6(194): 74–80. [In Russian]
Pavleichik V.M., Kalmykova O.G., Soroka O.V. 2016. Features of the microclimatic regime of steppe fires on the reserved site «Burtinskaya steppe». Samarskaya Luka: problems of regional ecology 4: 69–74. [In Russian]
Pereira P., Cerdа A., Lopez A.J., Zavala L.M., Mataix-Solera J., Arcenegui V., Misiune I., Keesstra S., Novara A. 2015. Vegetation recovery after a grassland fire in Lithuania. The effects of fire severity, slope position and aspect. Land Degradation and Development 27(5): 1523–1534. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2498
Pereira P., Mierauskas P., Novara A. 2016. Stakeholders' perceptions about fire impacts on Lithuanian protected areas. Land Degradation and Development 27(4): 871–883. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2290
Pereira P., Francos M., Ubeda X. Brevik E.C. 2017. Fire impacts in European grassland ecosystems. In: Antуnio Josй Bento-Gonзalves (Ed.): Wildfires: Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of the 21st Century. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. P. 1–28.
Rabotnov T.A. 1992. Phytocenology. Moscow: Moscow State University Press. 350 p. [In Russian]
Rostagno C.M., Defossé G.E., del Valle H.F. 2006. Postfire vegetation dynamics in three rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Rangeland Ecology and Management 59(2): 163–170. DOI: 10.2111/05-020R1.1
Rozhanets-Kucherovskaya S.E. 1926. Report on the vegetation of the Orenburg province. Orenburg: 5th Hostip. Polygraphist. 16 p. [In Russian]
Ruprecht E., Enyedi M.Z., Szabó A., Fenesi A. 2016. Biomass removal by clipping and raking vs burning for the restoration of abandoned Stipa-dominated European steppe-like grassland. Applied Vegetation Science 19(1): 78–88. DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12199
Ryabinina Z.N. 2003. Vegetation cover of the steppes of the Southern Urals (Orenburg region). Orenburg: Publishing house OGPU. 224 p. [In Russian]
Ryabinina N.O. 2013. Natural and anthropogenic factors of variability in the dynamics of the bio-productivity of the geosystems of the virgin bunchgrass steppes of the Eastern Don Ridge. Journal of Volgograd State University. Natural sciences 2: 62–67. [In Russian]
Ryabinina N.O. 2014. The impact of fires on the steppe landscapes of the Eastern-Don Ridge. In: S.N. Kanishchev (Ed.): Anthropogenic transformation of geospace: history and modernity: Materials of All-Russian scientific-practical conference. Volgograd: Publishing House of Volgograd State University. P. 41–48. [In Russian]
Ryabinina Z.N., Yanturin S.I., Ryabtsov S.N., Abdulina K.Kh., Yunusbayev U.B. 2010. The role of steppe fires in the formation of vegetation cover of the Southern Urals. Ufa: Academy of Sciences of Bashkortostan; Gilem. 219 p. [In Russian]
Ryabtsov S.N. 2002. On the question of the history of the study of the restoration of steppe vegetation after pyrogenic loading. In: Z.N. Ryabinina (Ed.): Biodiversity and Bioresources of the Urals and Adjacent Territories: Proceedings of the II International conference. Orenburg: Publishing house of the OGPU. P. 106–107. [In Russian]
Ryabtsov S.N. 2006. Dynamics of the structure of plant communities under the influence of fire. In: Z.N. Ryabinina (Ed.): Biodiversity and Bioresources of the Urals and Adjacent Territories: Proceedings of the III International scientific conference. Orenburg: Printservice. P. 101–103. [In Russian]
Ryabtsov S.N., Safonov M.A. 2002. Influence of pyrogenic load on steppe vegetation. Proceedings of the Institute of bioresources and applied ecology 2: 41–42. [In Russian]
Safronova I.N., Kalmykova O.G. 2012. Zonality issues and the role of reserves in their solution. Proceedings of Samara Scientific Centre RAS 1(6): 1638–1641. [In Russian]
Sambuu A.D., Dapyldai A.D. 2016. Fires of steppe vegetation on the territory of Tuva and their consequences. In: A.D. Sambuu (Ed.): Preservation of the diversity of flora in Tuva and adjacent regions of Central Asia: history, modernity, prospects: Materials of the 1st International Scientific and Practical Conference. Kyzyl: Tuvikopr SB RAS. P. 135–141. [In Russian]
Scheintaub M.R., Derner J.D., Kelly E.F., Knapp A.K. 2009. Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. Journal of Arid Environments 73(12): 1136–1143. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.05.011
Semenova-Tyan-Shanskaya A.M. 1977. Accumulation and role of litter in grass communities. Leningrad: Nauka. 191 р. [In Russian]
Shalyt M.S., Kalmykova A.A. 1935. Steppe fires and their influence on vegetation. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 1: 101–110. [In Russian]
Skolzneva L.N., Skolznev N.Ya. 2003. Some issues of protection of steppe ecosystems. In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia. Reference steppe landscapes: problems of protection, ecological restoration and use: Proceedings of the III International Symposium. Orenburg: PPC Gazprompechat; LLC Orenburggazpromservis. P. 479–482. [In Russian]
Tanfilyev V.G. 1936. Experiments on the burning of old dry grass in a steppe zones. Sovetskaya Botanika 6: 82–88. [In Russian]
Timoshenkov V.A., Timoshenkova V.V. 2007. Fires in the Khomutovskaya steppe: causes, information, consequences. Steppe Bulletin 23–24: 27–30. [In Russian]
Tishkov A.A. 2003. Fires in the steppes and savannas. In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Proceedings of the III international Symposium «Steppes of Northern Eurasia». Orenburg: PPC «Gazprompechat»; LLC «Orenburggazprom». P. 9–22. [In Russian]
Titlyanova A.A., Sambuu A.D. 2016. Successions in herbal ecosystems. Novosibirsk: Publishing House of the SB RAS. 191 p. [In Russian]
Tkachuk T.E. 2015. Multi-year dynamics of the steppe fires in Dauria. Fundamental Research 2–10: 2185–2189. [In Russian]
Tkachuk T.E., Denisova Yu.Yu. 2015. The influence of experimental burning on the structure of steppe phytocenoses in the south of Dauria. In: A.A. Chibilev (Ed.): Steppes of Northern Eurasia. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium. Orenburg: PH «Dimur». P. 847–849. [In Russian]
Tuvshintogtokh I., Magsar U. 2000. The effect of fires on plant society of steppe Eastern Mongolia. In: Academia.edu. Available from https://www.academia.edu/17187658/THE EFFECT OF FIRES ON PLANT SOCIETY OF STEPPE EASTERN MONGOLIA 2000 ?auto=download
Tuvshintogtokh I., Magsar U. 2007. Fire Effects on Productivity and Community Dynamics of Mongolian Grasslands. International Forest Fire News (IFFN) 36: 67–75.
Twidwell D., Rogers W.E., McMahon E.A., Thomas B.R., Kreuter U.P., Blankenship T.L. 2012. Prescribed extreme fire effects on richness and invasion in coastal Prairie. Invasive Plant Science and Management 5(3): 330–340. DOI: 10.1614/IPSM-D-12-00017.1
Valkó O., Török P., Deák B., Tóthmérész B. 2014. Review: Prospects and limitations of prescribed burning as a management tool in European grasslands. Basic and Applied Ecology 15(1): 26–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2013.11.002
Valkó O., Deák B., Magura T., Török P., Kelemen A., Tóth K., Horváth R., Nagy D.D., Debnár Z., Zsigrai G., Kapocsi I., Tóthmérész B. 2016. Supporting biodiversity by prescribed burning in grasslands – a multi-taxa approach. Science of the Total Environment 572: 1377–1384. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.184
Valkó O., Kelemen A., Miglécz T., Török P., Deák B., Tóth K., Tóth J.P., Tóthmérész B. 2017. Litter removal does not compensate detrimental fire effects on biodiversity in regularly burned semi-natural grasslands. Science of the Total Environment 622–623: 783–789. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.356
Walter G., Alekhin V.V. 1936. Fundamentals of Botanical Geography. Moscow; Leningrad: Biomedgiz. 715 p. [In Russian]
Winter S.L., Hickman K.R., Goad C.L., Fuhlendorf S.D., Gregory M.S. 2013. Seasonal Fires, Bison Grazing, and the Tallgrass Prairie Forb Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf. Natural Areas Journal 33(3): 327–338. DOI: 10.3375/043.033.0311
Winter S.L. Allred B.W., Hickman K.R., Fuhlendorf S.D. 2015. Tallgrass prairie vegetation response to spring fires and bison grazing. The Southwestern Naturalist 60(1): 30–35. DOI: 10.1894/FMO-19.1
Yaroshenko P.D. 1961. Geobotany. Moscow; Leningrad: Publishing house of the AS USSR. 474 р. [In Russian]
Yunusbayev U.B., Abdulina K.Kh. 2010. Influence of different timing of fires on the regrowth of aboveground phytomass in steppes of the Bashkir Transural region. Russian Journal of Ecology 41(1): 60–62. DOI: 10.1134/S106741361001011X
Yunusbayev U.B., Abdulina K.Kh., Yanturin S.I. 2007. The role of fires in the formation of above-ground phytomass of steppe pastures in Transural part of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Agrarian Russia 5: 24–25. [In Russian]