Article

Article name WATER BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA) OF SOME PEATLANDS IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS
Authors

Alexander A. Prokin, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Water Invertebrates Ecology in the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences; Researcher of the ecological-analytical laboratory of the Department of Biology in the Cherepovets State University (Borok, 135, 9. 152742, Yaroslavl Oblast', Nekouz district, Russia); e-mail: prokina@mail.ru
Alexey S. Sazhnev, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory of Water Invertebrates Ecology in the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences (Borok, 135, 15. 152742, Yaroslavl Oblast', Nekouz district, Russia); e-mail: sazh@list.ru
Dmitriy A. Philippov, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Higher Aquatic Plants in the Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences (Borok, 152742, Yaroslavl Oblast', Nekouz district, Russia); e-mail: philippov_d@mail.ru

Reference to article

Prokin A.A., Sazhnev A.S., Philippov D.A. 2019. Water beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) of some peatlands in the North Caucasus. Nature Conservation Research 4(2): 57–66. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2019.016

Section Resarch articles
DOI https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2019.016
Abstract

Montane peatlands occupy only 0.1% of the Caucasus territory and are present at altitudes of 600–3400 m a.s.l. Unlike vegetation and stratigraphy, insects of the peatlands have been studied poorly. The aim of our study is to describe for the first time the fauna of water beetles of Sphagnum and Carex-Sphagnum peatlands in the North Caucasus, its zoogeographical and regional specifics, and factors determining species richness and species composition of water beetles in several peatlands. The fieldwork was performed in May, June, and September, 2018, in eight peatlands in North Ossetia (Tarskoe, Chifandzar, and two peatlands on the Kubus Mount and Kabardino-Balkaria (three small peatlands near Verkhnyaya Balkaria village and the «narzan» (with emissions of mineral groundwater) Ushtulu peatland). The material was collected in the in-mire water bodies and watercourses by sweeping with a Balfour-Brown aquatic net, collecting individuals with aquarium nets in shallow water bodies, and trampling of Sphagnum. We recorded 25 species of water beetles of six families: Gyrinidae (1), Haliplidae (1), Dytiscidae (13), Helophoridae (2), Hydrophilidae (7), and Hydraenidae (1). Among them, there are endemics, and subendemics of the Caucasus boreal montane species which are glacial relicts of the region. Development of the local fauna of water beetles in the North Caucasus peatlands has regional specifics and depends on altitudes, typological diversity of the peatland water bodies, and physical and chemical properties of water. We recommend establishing new Protected Areas in Russia: Sphagnum peatlands in Kabardino-Balkaria near the village Verkhnyaya Balkaria. For protection of montane Sphagnum peatlands as unique habitats, we recommend to include the boreal-montane species Hydroporus incognitus and Hydroporus nigellus in the Red Data Book of Kabardino-Balkaria and Hydroporus nigellus in the Red Data Book of North Ossetia.

Keywords

Carex-Sphagnum peatlands, conservation, fauna, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, regional specifics, species richness, Sphagnum peatlands, zoogeography

Artice information

Received: 23.12.2018. Revised: 02.03.2019. Accepted: 05.03.2019.

The full text of the article
References

Abellán P., Benetti C.J., Angus R.B., Ribera I. 2011. A review of Quaternary range shifts in European aquatic Coleoptera. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20(1): 87–100. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00572.x
Akatov V.V. 1986. Main trends in the overgrowth of alpine lakes in the North-Western Caucasus. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 71(6): 798–804. [In Russian]
Akatova T.V. 2002. Mosses of the Caucasian Reserve. Arctoa 11: 179–204. [In Russian]
Angus R. 1992. Insecta: Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Helophorinae. Süsswasserfauna von Mitteleuropa 20[10(2)]: 1–144.
Balian E.V., Segers H., Lévêque C., Martens K. 2008. The Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment: an overview of the results. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 627–637. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-007-9246-3
Barsegyan A.M. 1978. Dynamics of vegetation of Armenia wetlands. In: Genesis and dynamics of mires. Vol. 1. Moscow: Publisher of Moscow State University. P. 193–197. [In Russian]
Botch M.S., Mazing V.V. 1979. Mire ecosystems in the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 187 p. [In Russian]
Boukal D.S., Boukal M., Fikaček M., Hajek J., Klečka J., Skalicky S., Stastny J., Travniček D. 2007. Catalogue of water beetles of the Czech Republic (Coleoptera: Sphaeriusidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Hygrobiidae, Dytiscidae, Helophoridae, Georissidae, Hydrochidae, Spercheidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Scirtidae, Elmidae, Dryopidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Psephenidae). Klapalekiana 43(Suppl.): 1–289.
Busch E.A., Busch N.A. 1926. Botanical research in the Central Caucasus in 1925. Proceedings of the Botanical Museum of AS USSR 19: 163–181. [In Russian]
Busch N.A. 1932. On the mires limnogeneus origin of the Balkaria and Digoria. Proceedings of the Botanical Museum of AS USSR 25: 7–16. [In Russian]
Cuppen J.G.M. 1986. The influence of acidity and chlorinity on the distribution of Hydroporus species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) in the Netherlands. Entomologica Basiliensia 11: 327–336.
Dokturowsky W.S. 1927. On the boundaries of Sphagnum mires and mires districts. Torfyanoe delo 8: 185–188. [In Russian]
Dokturowsky W.S. 1936. Materials on the study of Transcaucasia. Pochvovedenie 2: 183–202. [In Russian]
Doroshina G.Ya., Nikolajev I.A. 2017. Sphagnum mosses of Tarskoe bog (North Ossetia) and their protection. In: Actual problems of chemistry, biology and biotechnology: Proceeding of the XI All-Russian Scientific Conference (May 18–20, 2017). Vladikavkaz: SGU Publishing House. P. 20–24. [In Russian]
Doroshina G.Ya., Nikolajev I.A. 2018. Sphagnum mosses (Sphagnaceae, Bryophyta) of mires Chefandzar and Masota in North Ossetia (Caucasus). Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii 52(2): 455–462. DOI: 10.31111/nsnr/2018.52.2.455 [In Russian]
Dylevskaya I.V. 1976. Study of Sphagnum mosses of Georgia. Proceedings of the Institute of Botany of Georgian SSR 28: 35–40. [In Russian]
Eyre M.D., Ball S.G., Foster G.N. 1986. An initial classification of the habitats of aquatic Coleoptera in north-east England. Journal of Applied Ecology 23(3): 841–852. DOI: 10.2307/2403938
Fery H. 2009. New species of the Hydroporus longulus-group from Iran, Armenia and Turkey with a synopsis of the group (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 49(2): 529–558.
Fery H., Petrov P.N. 2005. Nomenclatural, taxonomic, and faunistic notes on selected species of Hydroporus Clairville, 1806 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Russian Entomological Journal 14(4): 251–262.
Fikáček M., Angus R.B., Gentili E., Jia F., Minoshima Y.N., Prokin A., Przewoźny M., Ryndevich S.K. 2015a. Family Helophoridae Leach, 1815. In: I. Löbl, D. Löbl (Eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2/1. Revised and Updated Edition. Leiden-Boston: Brill. P. 25–33.
Fikáček M., Angus R.B., Gentili E., Jia F., Minoshima Y.N., Prokin A., Przewoźny M., Ryndevich S.K. 2015b. Family Hydrophilidae Latreille, 1802. In: I. Löbl, D. Löbl (Eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2/1. Revised and Updated Edition. Leiden-Boston: Brill. P. 37–76.
Golub V.B., Tsurikov M.N., Prokin A.A. 2012. Collections of insects: collecting, handling and keeping of the material. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press Ltd. 339 p. [In Russian]
Hájek J. 2017. Family Dytiscidae Leach, 1815. In: I. Löbl, D. Löbl (Eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 1. Revised and updated edition. Archostemata – Myxophaga – Adephaga. Leiden-Boston: Brill. P. 844–914.
Hansen M. 1987. The Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 18: 1–254.
Jäch M.A. 1987. New and little known Hydraena s. str. from Western Asia (Hydraenidae, Coleoptera). Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 39: 51–55.
Jäch M.A. 2015. Family Hydraenidae Mulsant, 1844. In: I. Löbl, D. Löbl (Eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2/1. Revised and Updated Edition. Leiden-Boston: Brill. P. 130–162.
Jӓch M.A., Balke M. 2008. Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 419–442. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_43
Joosten H., Tanneberger F., Moen A. (Eds.) 2017. Mires and peatlands of Europe: Status, distribution and conservation. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart Science Publishers. 780 p.
Juliano S.A. 1991. Changes in structure and composition of an assemblage of Hydroporus species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) along a pH gradient. Freshwater Biology 25(2): 367–378. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1991.tb00499.x
Katz N.Ya. 1971. Swamps of the Earth. Moscow: Nauka. 295 p. [In Russian]
Knyasev A.V., Savinetsky A.B., Gey N.A. 1992. Holocene history of vegetation in North Ossetia. In: L.G. Dinesman (Ed.): Historical ecology of wild and domestic ungulates: History of pasture ecosystems. Moscow: Nauka. P. 84–108. [In Russian]
Mani M.S. 1968. Ecology and Biogeography of High Altitude Insects. Series Entomologica. Vol. 4. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk N. V. Publisher. 528 p.
Neustadt M.I. 1957. History of forests and paleogeography of the USSR in the Holocene. Moscow: Publishing House of AN SSSR. 404 p. [In Russian]
Nilsson A.N., Holmen M. 1995. The aquatic Adephaga (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. II. Dytiscidae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 32: 1–188.
Panjutin P.S. 1942. Mires of Colchide. Botanicheskii Zhurnal of USSR 27(5): 94–107. [In Russian]
Philippov D.A., Prokin A.A., Przhiboro A.A. 2017. Methods and methodology of hydrobiological study of mires: tutorial. Tyumen: Publisher of the Tyumen State University. 207 p. [In Russian]
Ponomarenko A.G., Prokin A.A. 2015. Review of paleontological data on the evolution of aquatic beetles (Coleoptera). Paleontological Journal 49(13): 1383–1412. DOI: 10.1134/S0031030115130080
Prokin A.A. 2018. First record of Hebrus ruficeps (Heteroptera: Hebridae) from the Caucasus. Zoosystematica Rossica 27(2): 259–260. DOI: 10.31610/zsr/2018.27.2.259
Prokin A.A., Sazhnev A.S. 2019. New records of beetles from families Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydraenidae, Helophoridae, Hydrophilidae, Scirtidae and Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) from the North Caucasus. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 1. (In press).
Prokina K.I., Philippov D.A. 2017. Materials on the free-living heterotrophic flagellates of North and South Ossetia mires. Proceedings of IBIW RAS 79(82): 177–182. DOI: 10.24411/0320-3557-2017-10038 [In Russian]
Rydin H., Jeglum J.K. 2013. The Biology of Peatlands. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. 382 p.
Sánchez-Fernández D., Abellán P., Mellado A., Velasco J., Millan A. 2006. Are water beetles good indicators of biodiversity in Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems? The case of the Sigura river basin (SE Spain). Biodiversity and Conservation 15(14): 4507–4520. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-005-5101-x
Tarnogradsky D.A. 1947. Microflora and microfauna of the peat bogs of the Caucasus. 2. «Tarskoe» peaty moor. Proceedings of the North-Ossetia Agrarian Institute 1/14: 19–34. [In Russian]
Tarnogradsky D.A. 1957. Microflora and microfauna of the peat bogs of the Caucasus. 7. Sphagnetums of Caucasus State Reserve. Proceedings of the North-Ossetia Agrarian Institute 19: 31–39. [In Russian]
Tarnogradsky D.A. 1959. Microflora and microfauna of the peat bogs of the Caucasus. 8. Sedge-Sphagnum lakes in the upper course of Balkarskiy Cherek River. Proceedings of the North-Ossetia Agrarian Institute 6(3): 3–91. [In Russian]
Tsalolikhin S.Ya. (Ed.). 2001. Key to freshwater invertebrates of Russia and adjacent lands. Vol. 5. Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera. St. Petersburg: Nauka. 836 p. [In Russian]
Tumadzanov I.I. 1955. To the post-Pliocene history of forest vegetation in the North Caucasus. Proceedings of the Tbilisi Botanical Institute 17: 161–219. [In Russian]
Usseglio-Polatera P., Richoux P., Bournaud M., Tachet H. 2001. A functional classification of benthic macroinvertebrates based on biological and ecological traits: application to river condition assessement and stream management. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 139(1): 53–83.
van Vondel B.J., Holmen M., Petrov P.N. 2006. Review of the Palaearctic and Oriental species of the subgenus Haliplus s. str. (Coleoptera: Haliplidae: Haliplus) with descriptions of three new species. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 149: 227–273.
van Vondel B.J. 2017. Family Haliplidae Aubé, 1836. In: I. Löbl, D. Löbl (Eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 1. Archostemata – Myxophaga – Adephaga. Revised and updated edition. Leiden: Brill. P. 838–843.
Voronikhin N.N. 1934. Microflora of peatlands of Balkaria. Botanicheskii Zhurnal of USSR 19(5): 512–517. [In Russian]
Yemel'yanov A.F. 1974. Proposals on the classification and nomenclature of ranges. Entomological Review 53(3): 11–26.
Zaitzev F.A. 1927. Diving beetles of the Caucasus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Proceedings of the North Caucasus Hydrobiological Station at the Agricultural Institute 2(1): 1–42. [In Russian]
Zaitzev F.A. 1953. Coleoptera. Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae. In: Fauna USSR 4(58). Moscow, Leningrad: Publishing House of AS USSR. 372 p. [In Russian]
Zedelmeyer O.M. 1927. Distribution of peat bogs and Sphagnum mosses in Caucasus. Torfyanoe delo 7: 153–156. [In Russian]
Zerov D.K. 1935. Sphagnum mosses in Caucasus. Journal of Botany Institute of Ukrainian Academy of Science 6: 25–43. [In Ukrainian]