Elena B. Romanova, Professor, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23 Gagarina Ave., Nizhni Novgorod, 603950, Russia); e-mail: email@example.com
Evgeniy I. Solomaykin, MSc student, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23 Gagarina Ave., Nizhni Novgorod, 603950, Russia); e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Andrey G. Bakiev, Senior Researcher, Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin of RAS (445003, Russia, Samara Region, Togliatti, Komzina Street, 10); e-mail: email@example.com
Roman A. Gorelov, Senior Researcher, Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin of RAS (445003, Russia, Samara Region, Togliatti, Komzina Street, 10); e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
For the first time a hematological approach has been used to assess the status of the population of Dione snake Elaphe dione in a Protected Area (protected area «Aytuarskaya steppe» of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve). The blood formula (WBC) was calculated with the integral leukocyte indices (lymphocyte-granulocyte index, leukocyte shift index, index of the heterophiles and lymphocytes ratio, index of the heterophiles and eosinophils ratio, index of the lymphocytes and eosinophils ratio), the surface area of the main leukocyte types was measured: heterophiles, basophils, eosinophils, azurophiles, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Intraspecific gender differences were revealed for all the indicators studied. In females, the proportion of heterophiles and monocytes in peripheral blood is higher, compared with males; in contrast, the proportion of basophils and eosinophils is lower. Heterophiles, basophils, and eosinophils were characterised by moderate association with a qualitative trait (sex of the individual), and monocytes – by strong association (r = 0.82, R2 = 0.67, p = 0.001). Morphometric parameters of male granulocytic series exceeded similar parameters of female ones. There were no statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters of mononuclear cells (azurophiles, monocytes, and lymphocytes) between males and females. A strong positive correlation was found between the content of heterophiles (%) in the blood and the ratio of heterophiles and lymphocytes (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), which illustrated the significant contribution of the nonspecific blood defence system to adaptive responses of the body. The absence of differences in the integral index of the heterophiles and lymphocytes ratio for males and females (U = 1.33, p = 0.18) indicated a comparable level of impact and identity of the physiological adaptation mechanisms occurring in the animals in Protected Area conditions. The haematic picture and the dynamics of leukocytal indexes of Elaphe dione living on the reserve territory reflected the active response of the organism to a complex of environmental factors , with the most pronounced activation of immune processes in females in comparison with males.
Aghasyan A., Avci A., Tuniyev B., Crnobrnja-Isailovic J., Lymberakis P., Andrén C., Cogalniceanu D., Wilkinson J., Ananjeva N.B., Üzüm N., Orlov N.L., Podloucky R., Tuniyev S., Kaya U., Li P., Borkin L., Milto K., Golynsky E., Rustamov A, Nuridjanov D., Munkhbayar K., Shestapol A. 2017. Elaphe dione. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T157275A747623.en [Retrieved on: 22.04.2018].
Arican H., Cicek K. 2014. Haematology of amphibians and reptiles: a review. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10(1): 190–209.
Bakiev A.G., Garanin V.I., Gelashvili D.B., Gorelov R.A., Doronin I.V., Zaitseva O.V., Zinenko O.I., Klenena A.A., Makarova T.N., Malenyov A.L., Pavlov A.V., Petrova I.V., Ratnikov V. Yu., Starkov V.G., Shiryaeva I.V., Yusupov R.K., Yakovleva T.I. 2015. Vipers (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae: Vipera) in the Volga river basin. Part 1. Togliatti: Cassandra. 234 p. [In Russian]
Bakiev A.G., Garanin V.I., Litvinov N.A., Pavlov A.V., Ratnikov V.Ju. 2004. Snakes of Volga-Kama Region. Samara: Publishing House of Samara Scientific Centre of RAS. 192 p. [In Russian]
Chibilev A.A. 1999. Herpetofauna of Orenburg State Nature Reserve. In: The second conference of herpetologists of the Volga region: Theses of reports. Togliatti. P. 55–56. [In Russian]
Cabagna M.C., Lajmanovich R.C., Stringhini G., Sanchez-Hernandez J.C., Peltzer P.M. 2005. Hematological parameters of health status in the common toad Bufo arenarum in agro ecosystems of Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Applied Herpetology 2: 373–380. DOI: 10.1163/157075405774483085
Campbell T.W. 1996. Clinical pathology. In: D.R. Mader (Ed.): Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia (Pa, US): W.B. Saunders Company. P. 248–257.
Campbell T.W. 2004. Hematology of Lower Vertebrates. In: 55th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) & 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASVCP). Midleton WI, USA: American College of Veterinary Pathologists & American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Available from: http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/ACVP/2004/Campbell1/ivis.pdf.
Coico R., Sunshine G., Benjamini E. 2003. Immunology: A Short Course. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss Publications. 500 p.
Davis A.K., Maerz J.C. 2008. Sex-related differences in hematological stress indices of breeding, paedomorphic mole salamanders. Journal of Herpetology 42: 197–201. DOI: 10.1670/06-277R2.1
Davis A.K., Maney D.L., Maerz J.C. 2008. The use of leukocyte profiles to measure stress in vertebrates: a review for ecologists. Functional Ecology 22: 760–772. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01467.x
Davygora A.V. 1998. Dione snake. In: A.S. Vasilyev (Ed.): Red Data Book of the Orenburg Region. Animals and Plants. Orenburg: Orenburg Publishing House. P. 81. [In Russian]
Debelo P.V., Chibilev A.A. 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of the Ural-Caspian region. Ekaterinburg: Ural Branch of RAS. 400 p. (Series: Natural diversity of the Ural-Caspian region. Vol. III) [In Russian]
Government of the Orenburg Region Resolution of April 16, 2014 №229-p «On Amendments to the Orenburg Region Government Resolution of January 26, 2012 No. 67-p». 2014. 14 p. Available from: http://oopt.aari.ru/sites/default/files/documents/pravitelstvo-Orenburgskoy-oblasti/N229-p_16-04-2014.pdf [Retrieved on: 27.03.2018]. [In Russian]
Jain N.C. 1993. Essentials of Veterinary Hematology. Philadelphia (Pa.): Lea and Febiger. 417 p.
Khairutdinov I.Z., Sokolina F.M. 2010. Reptile Blood Characteristics and their Connection with Environmental Conditions: The Guidance Manual for Herpetology Course. Kazan: Kazan University Press. 44 p. [In Russian]
Kotenko T.I., Kuriachyi K.V. 2009. Dione snake. In: Red Data Book of Ukraine. Animals. Kyiv: Globalkonsalting. P. 392. [In Ukrainian]
LeBlanc C.J., Heatley J.J., Mack E.B. 2000. A review of the morphology of lizard leukocytes with a discussion of the clinical differentiation of bearded dragon, Pogona viticeps, leukocytes. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 10: 27–30. DOI: 10.5818/1529-96220.127.116.11
Lisnichaya Y.N., Yefimov V.G. 2014. Features study morphological composition of blood reptiles. Scientific and Technical Bulletin SIC Biosafety and Environmental Control Resources agribusiness 2(1): 61–74. [In Russian]
Orós J., Casal A.B., Arencibia A. 2010. Microscopic studies on characterization of blood cells of endangered sea turtles. In: A. Méndez-Vilas, J. Dias (Eds.): Microscopy: Science, Technology, Application and Education. Vol. 1. P. 75–84.
Romanova E.B., Nikolaev V.Yu., Bakiev A.G., Klenina A.A. 2015. Features of leukocyte blood composition of females of grass snake (Natrix natrix) and dice snake (N. tessellata) at the Samara region. Current Studies in Herpetology 15(1/2): 69–76. [In Russian]
Romanova E.B., Nikolaev V.Yu., Solomaykin E.I., Bakiev A.G., Gorelov R.A. 2016. The research of leukocyte formula of blood of Vipera berus from Samara region. Principles of the Ecology 5: 55–74. [In Russian]
Romanova E.B., Solomaykin E.I, Bakiev A.G., Gorelov R.A, Klyonina A.A. 2017. Immunohematological Indicators of Non- and Poisonous Snakes in the Volga Basin Areas with Different Antropogenic Transformation. Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Centre of RAS 19(2): 54–61. [In Russian]
Salakij C., Salakij J., Chanhome L. 2002. Comparative hematology, morphology and ultra structure of blood cells in Monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia), Siamese spitting cobra (N. siamensis) and Golden spitting cobra (N. sumatrana). Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science) 36: 291–300.
Sokolina F.M., Pavlov A.V., Yusupov R. 1997. Reptile Hematology: The Guidance Manual for Herpetology Course, Long-Term Practical Work, and Seminars. Kazan: Kazan University Press. 31 p. [In Russian]
Stacy N.I., Alleman A.R., Sayler K.A. 2011. Diagnostic hematology of Reptiles. Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine 31(1): 87–108. DOI: 10.1016/j.cll.2010.10.006
Sypek J.P., Borysenko M., Finday S.R. 1984. Anti-immunoglobulin induced histamine release from naturallyabundant basophils in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentine. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 8: 359–366.
Tabachishina I.E., Tabachishin V.G., Zavyalov E.V. 2005. Spatial location and trends in the variation of the number of the Elaphe dione in the north of the range in the Volga Region. Povolzhsky Journal of Ecology 3: 277–280. [In Russian]
Tkachenko E.A., Derkho M.A. 2014. Leukocyte Indexes in the Cadmium Experimental Intoxication of Mice. Bulletin of Orenburg State Agrarian University 3: 81–83. [In Russian]
Vasiliev D.B. 2016. Veterinary herpetology. Moscow: Aquarium. 420 p. [In Russian]
Vorobyeva A.S. 2001. Comparative characteristics of peripheral blood of serpents of the Volga Basin. In: Actual problems of herpetology and toxicology. Vol. 10. P. 25–30. [In Russian]
Zhiteneva L.D., Rudnitskaya O.A., Kalyuzhnaya T.I. 1997. Ecological and hematological characteristics of some fish species. Directory. Rostov-on-Don: AzNIIRH. 149 p. [In Russian]