Arockianathan Samson, Mammalogy and Forest Ecology Wing, Department of zoology and wildlife biology, Government Arts College (Udhagamandalam-643 002, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India); e-mail:
Balasundaram Ramakrishnan, Mammalogy and Forest Ecology Wing, Department of zoology and wildlife biology, Government Arts College (Udhagamandalam-643 002, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India)

Reference to article

Samson A., Ramakrishnan B. 2018. Population status, habitat selection and people's perception on Pavo cristatus (Aves: Phasianidae) in Sigur Plateau, the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India. Nature Conservation Research 3(1): 80–87. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2018.010

Section Resarch articles

The present study aimed to estimate the population status, habitat utilisation and threats to the Indian peafowl in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu from November 2016 to March 2017. A total of 1091 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 487 sightings in 1080 km (2.28 ± 0.05) with the encounter rate of 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Deciduous Forest a total of 570 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 224 sightings in 460 km (2.28 ± 0.05, ER = 1.01 individuals / km). In Dry Thorn Forest a total of 521 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 254 sightings in 620 km (2.05 ± 0.06) ER = 0.84 individuals / km. A total of 19 roosting trees species were identified, all recorded in thorn forest; similarly nine species were recorded in dry deciduous forest. The highest number of roosts were recorded in Tectona grandis (n = 27); the average height of the tree species was 14.46 m and the average Indian peafowl roost height was 11.25. The Indian peafowl has decreased; the reason for invading the human habitation was the loss of food (n = 60). Crop damage by peafowl shows that beans (50%) were highly damaged followed by chilly (37%), tomato (5%) and ragi (4%) and corn (1%). Drivers (n = 25) noted that under some circumstances Pavo cristatus could be killed due to its sudden appearance on the roads.


habitat, India, Indian Peafowl, Nilgiris, population, Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu

Artice information

Received: 12.11.2017

The full text of the article

Anwar M., Mahmood A., Rais M., Hussain I., Ashraf N., Khalil S., Qureshi B.D. 2015. Population Density and Habitat Preference of Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Deva Vatala National Park, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 47(5): 1381–1386.
BirdLife International. 2016. Pavo cristatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679435A92814454. Available from:
Brickle N.W.2002. Habitat use, predicted distribution and conservation of green peafowl (Pavo muticus) in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Biological Conservation 105: 189–197. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00182-3
Delacour J. 1977. The Pheasants of the World. 2nd edition. Spur Publications. 434 p.
Dodia P.P. 2011. Roost tree selection by the common Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at Bhavnagar District, Gujarat (India). Life Science Leaflet 11: 346–354.
Divya J., Sarita R. 2013. Population indices and habitat association of Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana using line transect and call count method. Indian Journal of Animal Research 47: 152–155.
Gadgil M. 1972. The function of Communal roost: relevance of mixed roosts. Ibis 114(4): 531–533.
Gadgil M., Ali S. 1975. Communal roosting habits of Indian birds. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 72(3): 716–727.
Gill F.B. 1994. Ornithology. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 117 p.
Harikrishnan S., Vasudevan K., Sivakumar K. 2010. Behavior of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus Linn.1758 during the mating period in a Natural Population. The Open Ornithology Journal 3: 13–19.
Hillgarth N. 1984. Social organization of the wild peafowl in India. Journal of World Pheasant Association 9: 47–56.
Johnsgard P.A. 1986. The Pheasants of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 204 p.
Johnsingh A.J.T., Murali S. 1978. The ecology and behavior of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Linn.of Injar, Tamilnadu. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 75: 1069–1079.
Johnsingh A.J.T. 1976. Peacocks and cobra. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 73(1): 214.
Matthew K.M. 1982. Illustrations on the Flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. Tiruchirapalli, India: Rapinat Herbarium, St. Joseph's College. 1027 p.
McGowan P.J.R., Garson P. 1995. Status survey and conservation action plan (1995–1999): Pheasants. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN & World Pheasant Association. 116 p.
Navaneethakannan K. 1981. Activity patterns in a colony of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in nature. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 81(2): 387–393.
Panda S., Panigrahi G.K., Padhi S. 2016. Wild Animals of India. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing. 67 p.
Parasharya B.M., Mukherjee A. 1999. Roosting behaviour of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 96(3): 471–472.
Rajadurai T. 1988. Present distribution and status of Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Viralimalai area, Tamil Nadu, and South India. M.Sc. Dissertation: A.V.C. College, Mannampandal.
Ramesh K., McGowan P. 2009. On the current status of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae): keeping the common species common, Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(2): 106–108.
Ramakrishnan B., Ramasubramanian S., Samson A. 2012. Occurrence of Red-headed vulture in Sigur plateau, Tamil Nadu. Current Science 102(6): 832.
Ramakrishnan B., Saravanamuthu R. 2012. Conservation and Management of Elephant Corridors: Ecology, Human-Elephant Conflict, Capacity Building. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing. 208 p.
Ramakrishnan B., Kannan G., Samson A., Ramkumar K., Ramasubramanian S. 2014. Nesting of White-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in the Sigur Plateau of The Nilgiri North Forest Division. Indian Forester 140(10): 1014–1018.
Rathinasabapathi B. 1987. Activity patterns with special reference to food and feeding habits of the Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus in Viralimalai area, Tamilnadu. M.Sc. Thesis. Tamil Nadu: Bharathidasan University. 27 p.
Roberts T.J. 1991. The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 1. Non-passeriformes. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 617 p.
Samson A., Ramakrishnan B., Renuka S., Ravi P., Ramasubramanian S. 2014. Bathing behavior and waterhole importance of white-rumped vulture conservation in the Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Journal of Applied Science and Research 2(5): 92–99.
Samson A., Ramakrishnan B., Veeramani A., Ravi P. 2016. Population Status and Habitat Preference of Vultures in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Podoces 11(1): 7–12.
Sathyanarayana M.C. 2004. Bird pest management with special reference to Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus in Tamilnadu, India. In: R.A. Fuller, S.J. Browne (Eds): Galliformes 2004. Proceedings of the 3rd International Galliformes Symposium. Fordingbridge, UK: World Pheasant Association.
Sathyanarayana M.C., Veeramani A. 1993. Roosting trees used by blue peafowl at Tamilnadu. In: D. Jenkins (Ed.): Pheasant in Asia. Reading, UK: World Pheasant Association. P. 144–145.
Sharma I.K. 1979. Ecological aspects of population trends of the peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at Jodhpur, India. Pavo 17(1–2): 50–53.
Sharma I.K. 1983. Roost site of birds around Jodhpur. Newsletters for Bird Watchers 13(1–2): 8–9.
Trivedi P., Johnsingh A.J.T. 1995. Diet of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus Linn. in Gir Forest, Gujarat. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 92(1–3): 262–263.
Veeramani A. 1990. Studies on ecological and behavioural aspects of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, South India. M.Sc. Thesis. Tamil Nadu: Bharathidasan University.
Yasmin S., Yahya H.S.A. 1996. Correlation of mating success in Indian peafowl. The Auk: Ornithological Advances 113(2): 490–492.